Communication at Different Stages
Alex Zsofi, Marci
Throughout our lives, we face many situations in which we need or want to communicate. The way we choose from among words and the way we order them, such as the style we are using, greatly depend on our ages and the people we are sending information to. As the beginning of communication in a person` s life, we can talk about active and passive beginning. The latter one refers to our fetal period of life, when we communicate without intention and receive information about the outside world in an indirect way. (Such as moving our limbs or listening to our mother` s voice.) Active communication means a direct connection. At first, we only communicate with inherited, non-verbal elements. The first mutual relationship is when the baby smiles at his/her mother. Later verbal skills also develop. This however, means a long process from baby-talk to complete and complex sentences. The communication of children is characterized by a constant changing. The first active communication is the moving of the head from side to side rejecting more milk from the mother` s breast. Then, during the first half year, they use rather non-verbal elements: babies communicate showing what they want. For instance, they raise their arms to ask the mother to hug them. At birth they are capable to pronounce all sounds but during the first year they lose this ability and store only those being useful. After finding the manner of forming the sounds needed for their language, -around the 6th-8th month- they start to copy adults. This lets a symmetric communication come to life. A common feature of parents is to use the expressions of their children, then. This certainly encourages the babies to copy new sounds, words, gestures, non-verbal communicational elements and, later on, behavior, as well. Children start asking What is this? and For what reason? In the 12th month children usually start to speak. They have a special vocabulary, in which the first words are connected to family members, animals, vehicles, toys, food, parts of the body and objects surrounding them. If they do not know the proper word for something, they tend to extend the meaning of another one referring to some similar thing. One example is when they use the word dog for cattle and cat, also. This does not mean that they cannot distinguish these animals. If they are shown pictures of them, they can tell, which one is called the dog in reality. They just substitute the words cattle and cat to be able to express themselves better, in a way they still remain understandable. Between the 18th and 30th months, words are organized into inchoate sentences. These are constructed of two words, like Tom ball (meaning: This is Tom` s ball) or Dog there (standing for: There is a dog.) At this stage, they use no verbs or not the correct forms. Later on, more complex sentences are used and own rules are formed. They recognize general rules and apply them without exception. The past tense of choose is often pronounced as chosed and I is sometimes mixed up with eye. Though, after two and a half years, vocabulary develops so fast, that they learn nine new words each day. (By the age of six, most children have a vocabulary of approximately 14,000 words!) They produce grammatically correct sentences from the age of three and speak similarly to adults already from the age of four. At these ages, they get to know other children at nursery schools and meet different expectations, put on them by the society. This causes differences between the behavior of boys and girls. On the one side, girls play in smaller groups and use cooperative communication to create or to maintain friendships. Their talks do not include criticism, negativism or they if they do so, they do it gently. On the other side, boys tend to play in large groups, the games are very competitive and everybody has his rule within them. Thus, communication involves harsh language,...
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