HEALTH PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT IN INDIA
Dr.S.Kayarkanni1 and Mr.M.Senthilkumar2 Inroduction :
Improvement in the health status of the population has been one of the major thrust areas for the social development programmes of the country. This was to be achieved through improving the access to and utilization of Health, Family Welfare and Nutrition Services with special focus on under served and under privileged segment of population. Main responsibility of infrastructure and manpower building rests with the State Government supplemented by funds from the Central Government and external assistance. Major disease control programmes and the Family Welfare Programmes are funded by the Centre (some with assistance from external agencies) and are implemented through the State infrastructure. The food supplementation programmes for mothers and children are funded by the State and implemented through the ICDS infrastructure funded by the Central Government. Safe drinking water and environmental sanitation are essential pre-requisites for health. Initially these two activities were funded by the Health Department, but subsequently Dept. of Urban and Rural Development and Dept. of Environment fund these activities both in the State and Centre. Health and health care development has not been a priority of the Indian state. This is reflected in two significant facts. One, the low level of investment and allocation of resources to the health sector over the years about one percent of GDP with clear declining trends over the last decade. And second the uncontrolled and very rapid development of an unregulated private health sector, especially in the last two decades.This does not mean that there was no health policy all these years. At the state government level there is no evidence of any policy initiatives in the health sector. The Central government through the Council of Health and Family Welfare and various Committee recommendations has shaped health policy and planning in India. It has directed this through the Five Year Plans through which it executes its decisions. The entire approach has been program based. The Centre designs national programs and the states have to just accept them. The Centre assures this through the fiscal control it has in distribution of resources. So, essentially what is a state subject the Centre takes major decisions. However it is important to note that this Central control is largely over preventive and promotive programs like the Disease Control programs, MCH and Family Planning, which together account for between half and two-thirds of state budgets. Curative care, that is hospital and dispensaries, has not been an area of Central influence and in this domain investments have come mostly from the state’s own resources. Structured health policy making and health planning in India is not a post-independence phenomena. In fact, the most comprehensive health policy and plan document ever prepared in India was on the eve of Independence in 1946. Especially the 80% population residing in rural areas. It is only an embarrassment for the Indian nation that more than half a century later there is no evidence of development of health care services to an expected level. The enclave pattern of development of the health sector continues even today – the poor, the villagers, women and other underprivileged sections of society, in other words the majority, still do not have access to affordable basic health care of any credible quality. This Research Paper includes analysis of existing Health Planning and the development of health status of the society in the past decade 2001 to 2011 . Census of India 2001 and Census of India 2011 used. Decline of Fertility rate,Maternal Mortality rate ,Infant Mortality rate and other developments are studied .At the same time Upgrowing Trend of fatality of some communicable...
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