ii. Religious violence in post-modern India
iii. Instances of religious terror in India
iv. The Babri Masjid Demolition
v. The 1992-1993 Bombay Riots
vi. The 1993 Bombay Bombings
vii. Anti-Christian violence in India
viii. March 2001 Kanpur Riots
ix. 2001 Godhra Riots
x. Sikh related violence
xi. National Liberation Front of Tripura
xii. 1984-1990 Ethnic Cleansing of Kashmiri Pandits
COMMUNALISM IN POST-MODERN INDIA
Communalism has always been a problem in India due to the presence of many religious communities. During many periods throughout history, especially after the Delhi Sultanate, there have been clashes between members of different communities. Some have looked upon the failure of the Indian National Congress to form coalition ministries in 1937 as the turning point in relations between Hindus and Muslims in India. Others claim it was 1928, when the all parties’ conference rejected separate electorates whereas still others believe it was the formation of the Muslim league in 1906. However, major communal issues began with the advent of the British Raj in India and the British policy of divide and rule. Also, the uneven economic and cultural development of the different communities was an important factor in the rise of communalism. The foundation of the Muslim league and reactions of Hindu political organizations to their foundation forever cemented communal politics in India. The demand for Pakistan and collapse of the non-cooperation movement etched communalism in India. Important factors contributing to growth of communalism
1) Socio-economic causes
This way Muslims legged far behind their Hindus brethren in Jobs and Education which rendered middle and lower class Muslims economically backward. 2) British policy of ‘Divide and rule’
Recognizing the role of Muslims in the revolt of 1857, British rulers tilted their policies in favour of Hindus. The British Government deliberately denied Muslims entry into army. The British’s rulers suppressed Urdu and Persian languages to promote English as the medium of education. Since Hindus were professionally more advanced than the Muslims they got more and more jobs and improved their economic lot. 3) Role of Sayyid Ahmed Khan
Sir Sayyid Ahmed Khan, a champion of Muslim cause, instilled in them a sense of Western culture and language. 4) Communalism in writing of Indian History
British writers of Indian History served the imperial cause. They distorted the facts in such a ways to perpetuate Hindu-Muslim divide. 5) Off short of Socio-religious reform movement
The reform movement has far reaching repercussions on Hindu Muslims- units. The Wahabi Movement launched a crusade against the Hindus. On the other hand Dayanand bitterly criticized the Muslims.
6) Side effect of nationalism
The speeches of militant nationalists, which contained references to Hindu national heroes, projected anti-Muslim sentiments. The Khilafat movement had also at its base religious cause. These things created distrust among Hindus and Muslims for each other.
7) Communal Hindu Organizations
British imperial policies in India provided a congenial climate for the growth of communal organisations. “Hindu Mahasabha” which was formed in response to Muslim League; aggravated the communal issues by its thinking and policies.
The world's great religions all have both peaceful and violent messages from which believers can choose. Religious terrorists and violent extremists share the decission to interpret religion to justify violence, whether they are Buddhist, Christian, Hindu, Jewish, Muslim, or Sikh. India has faced terrorism of an ephemeral nature, which sprang suddenly due to religious anger against either the government or the majority Hindu community or both and petered out subsequently. Examples of this would be the simultaneous explosions...