Commercial influences on science research and technology.
First of all, we need to know that connections between science, technology are plentiful. It is known that these connections are growing in number and extent, a repercussion of the rising role of science and technology for competitiveness between the leading economies. Both governments and business confirm that this close links is mostly positive for science and technology and the society. However Their are some concerns about commercial influence on science and technology which is going to be presented in details for this essay.
There is clear proof that large-scale, commercial participation in university-based science, and technology has effect that can be very detrimental, such as the introduction of considerable bias and the marginalisation of work with clear social and environmental benefits. These impacts take place at different scales, including the ones through individual research studies, the agenda-setting process for R&D, and communication of findings to fellow professionals, policy-makers and the public. While academic examination of these influences has so far been limited. However, there is non the less credible proof of serious issues across all the five sectors so far.
At the level of the individual research study, there has been some noticeable problems, one of them is the direct commercial funding of a research study which increases the probability that the outcome will be appropriate to the funders. Evidence of this fundamentally came from academic research in the pharmaceutical and biotechnology sectors. One way in which this bias – known as sponsorship bias – occur in the conditions under inspections was that funders head to choose scientists who were previously sympathetic to their viewpoint. Deliberate distortion or repression of data was much less common, although it did take place, particularly in pharmaceutical and the tobacco funded regions, and it may well be more...
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