Coloring Agent

Topics: E number, Food coloring, Food colorings Pages: 9 (2778 words) Published: January 30, 2013
1. FD&C Blue No. 1 – Brilliant Blue FCF, E133 (blue shade) Brilliant Blue FCF (Blue 1), also known under commercial names, is a colorant for foods and other substances to induce a color change. It is denoted by E number E133 and has a color index of 42090. It has the appearance of a reddish-blue powder. It is soluble in water, and the solution has a maximum absorption at about 628 nanometer. -------------------------------------------------

It is a synthetic dye produced using aromatic hydrocarbons from petroleum.[1] It can be combined with tartrazine (E102) to produce various shades of green. It is usually a disodium salt. The diammonium salt has CAS number [2650-18-2]. Calcium and potassium salts are also permitted. It can also appear as an aluminium lake. The chemical formation is C37H34N2Na2O9S3. The dye is poorly absorbed from the gastro-intestinal tract and 95% of the ingested dye can be found in the feces. It also reacts with certain bile pigments to form green feces. -------------------------------------------------

As a blue color, Brilliant Blue FCF is often found in ice cream, canned processed peas, packet soups, bottled food colorings, icings, ice pops, blue raspberry flavored products, dairy products, sweets[2] and drinks, especially the liqueur blue curacao. It is also used in soaps, shampoos,mouthwash[3] and other hygiene and cosmetics applications. In soil science, Brilliant Blue is applied in tracing studies to visualize infiltration and water distribution in the soil. -------------------------------------------------

Health and safety
Brilliant Blue FCF has previously been banned in Austria, Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Italy, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerlandamong others[4] but has been certified as a safe food additive in the EU and is today legal in most of the countries. It has the capacity for inducing anallergic reaction in individuals with pre-existing moderate asthma.[5] -------------------------------------------------

Biomedical research
Scientists who were investigating the use of compounds to lessen the severity of inflammation following spinal cord injury had previously tested a compound called OxATP to block a key ATP receptor in spinal neurons. However, OxATP has toxic side effects and must be injected directly into the spinal cord; in searching for alternatives they noted that Brilliant Blue FCF has a similar structure. This led them to test a related dye, Brilliant Blue G, also known as Coomassie Brilliant Blue in rats, which improved recovery from spinal cord injury.[6] 2. FD&C Blue No. 2 – Indigotine, E132 (indigo shade) Indigo carmine, or 5,5'-indigodisulfonic acid sodium salt, also known as indigotine or FD&C Blue #2 is a pH indicator with thechemical formula C16H8N2Na2O8S2. It is approved for use as a food colorant in the United States[1] and the EU[2] and has the E numberE132. -------------------------------------------------

Indigo Carmine (pH indicator)|
below pH 11.4| | above pH 13.0|
11.4| ↔| 13.0|
The primary use of Indigo carmine is as a pH indicator. It is blue at pH 11.4 and yellow at 13.0. Indigo carmine is also a redox indicator, turning yellow upon reduction. Another use is as a dissolved ozone indicator[3] through the conversion to isatin-5-sulfonic acid.[3] This reaction has been shown not to be specific to ozone, however: it also detects superoxide, an important distinction in cell physiology.[4] It is also used as a dye in the manufacturing of capsules, and in obstetrics, Indigo carmine-based dye is used to detect amniotic fluid leaks. In surgery, intravenous indigo carmine is used to highlight the urinary tract. The dye is filtered rapidly by the kidneys from the blood, and colors the urine blue. This enables structures of the urinary tract to be seen in the surgical field, and demonstrate if there is a leak. However, the dye can cause a potentially dangerous increase in blood pressure in...
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