During the second half of the 19th century, the western countries i.e. Britain, USA, Germany, France, Italy etc began a trend of colonising other counties from the rest of the world mainly Africa, Asia and some countries in south America to expand their respective empires. There are many reasons to why these western countries began to colonise, one of the main reasons was because their economies were going through difficulties, and they were running out of natural resources, the unemployment rate was increasing, the rate of pollution was increasing, and the area of land where there was no urban development was becoming scarcer. So by colonising other countries from the rest of the world there were able to help their economic situation by obtaining the colonised countries natural resources and exporting them back to their respective countries. In this essay we will explore and analyse how the methods of colonisation, the control “the white man’s burden” had and the effect of human zoos played a role in making western culture dominate to the extent that the essence of design in architecture has been lost; hence the reason to why vernacular architecture is not recognised as architecture. METHODS OF COLONISATION
There were various methods in which the westerners used to colonise countries. For most of the colonised countries in Africa the most common method was through war. Due to the fact that the westerners had advanced weaponry like guns, cannons etc they were able to attain victories over the local African tribes, and conquer their land. Most tribes be it African, Asian were no match against the western weaponry, this was simply because the locals had never seen and fought against such advancements in weaponry therefore because of their lack of no how they were unable to defend themselves as effectively, making the it an easy and most times an effortless victory for the westerners. The following quote is a part of a speech made by Kaiser Wilhelm II in 1900 to a German crowd of departing expedition to china, “You will have to fight a force superior in numbers. But, as our military history demonstrates, we are accustomed to this . . . . Gather new laurels for your [regimental] flags.” (Marc Jason Gilbert, 2008) from the quote above it is easy to see the confidence that the Germans (westerner) had in themselves and their ability to be victorious over the Chinese. The quote acknowledges that the Germans will face a force in china that is superior in number; to many that would seem to be a very intimidating factor. However Kaiser Wilhelm continues to say that the German military history is accustomed to this, meaning that the German expedites should not worry because their military history i.e. the weapons and tactics will see them through to a victory as they hold up their flags, as if to mark the newly gained territory. The only African countries not to be colonised were Ethiopia and Liberia. Below are three pictures, one of an African warrior, one of an Asian warrior, and one of a western European soldier during the 19th century.
Fig 1. African warrior, Asian warrior, European soldier -19th century. From the pictures you can see how the African weaponry and Asian weaponry was no match against the bullets from the European rifles. Towards the end of the 19th century colonisation had grown vastly due to western weaponry, with Britain having the largest empire. At this stage the reason for colonisation had now turned into a show piece of which country had the most land and strongest empire. “....by the end of the First World War the colonial empires had become very popular almost everywhere: public opinion had been convinced of the needs of a colonial empire, although most of the metropolitans would never see a piece of it.” (Scramble for Africa, 2009) Other methods that were used by the westerners were by slowly taking over an economy and making the country that it was...