Category 1: Momentum was found that after the collision was less than before the collision by 10%. This was not what has been expected, so the difference was fairly significant. This happened because of friction, when the two pucks collided, they have lost a bit of their momentum, so the momentum after the collision differed. Kinetic energy differed more than what was expected, it was significantly less after the collision, the difference before and after the collision was 63.7%, so 36.3% of that momentum was lost. This have occurred because the collision is inelastic and since there was friction when the two pucks collided, their speed became less, and speed is directly proportional to kinetic energy.

Category 2: the change of momentum before and after the collisions differed slightly, the change of momentum before the collision was less than that after the collision. This was not what was expected, but because the collision was inelastic and experienced friction when the two pucks collided, the time before the collision differed from that after the collision. After the collision, the pucks lost some speed and so it took more time to cover the same distance before the collisions. In the equation time will become less and change in momentum is directly proportional to time.

Category 3: the pucks did stick together when they collided and moved together. The total kinetic energy did differ significantly, the difference between the collision before and after was 77.3%, so 22.7% of the energy was lost after the collision. This occurred because it was an inelastic collision. Due to the colliding and sticking together, that rest of the energy lost, was transferred to thermal and sound energy. What has been expected about this category was true to conclude then.

Category 4: isolating and solving for the mass using the conservation of momentum formula seemed fairly workable. The mass that was calculated tended to be 0.152kg or 152g. this...

...
Centro de investigación y desarrollo de educación bilingüe (CIDEB)
PhysicsLAB REPORT
Uniform Rectilinear Motion
Teacher: Patrick Morris
Alejandra Castillejos Longoria
Group: 205
ID: 1663878
Abstract
The purpose of this experiment, was to prove the concept of the uniform linear motion by using an air track. With this, we demonstrated the impulse and change in momentum, the conservation of energy and the linear motion. We basically learnt to calculate the distance/time, acceleration/time, and velocity/time and graph it. The air track is also used to study collisions, both elastic and inelastic. Since there is very little energy lost through friction it is easy to demonstrate how momentum is conserved before and after a collision. According to the result, the velocity of the object in the air track was constant, it means that it didn’t have acceleration because it has constant velocity.
Introduction
First of all; we should understand what is linear motion. Linear motion is motion along a straight line, and can therefore be described mathematically using only one spatial dimension. Uniform linear motion with constant velocity or zero acceleration. The Air Track can be used to obtain an accurate investigation of the laws of motion. A car or glider travels on a cushion of air provided which reduces friction. Since the friction is all but...

...Collisions in Two Dimensions
Abstract: This lab was conducted to investigate the theories of conservation of momentum and kinetic energy in different types of 2D collisions. In order to do this, both an elastic and inelastic collision was conducted on an air table with pucks. A video was taken and analyzed to determine velocity, allowing for future finding of momentum and kinetic energy values. By finding these, it was possible to determine which kind of collision took place. With low values of change in momentum and kinetic energy that occurred in elastic collisions, it is understood that both are conserved in this type of collision. However, in the inelastic collision, momentum is conserved while kinetic energy is not. Possible error in this lab may have resulted from the neglect of friction and rotational kinetic energy. Overall, however, the results matched up well with the expected values. The objective of the lab was therefore met.
Objective:
The objective of this lab is to support that momentum will be conserved in all forms of collisions, and that kinetic energy will be conserved only in elastic collisions.
Materials:
Materials used in this lab were a video camera, an air table with pucks and Velcro bands, and Logger Pro software.
Procedure:
Videos of...

...Momentum and Simple 1D Collisions PhET Lab
Introduction: When objects move, they have momentum. Momentum, p, is simply the product of an object’s mass (kg) and its velocity (m/s). The unit for momentum, p, is kgm/s. During a collision, an object’s momentum can be transferred to impulse, which is the product of force (N) and time (s) over which the force acts. This allows us to write the momentum-impulse theorem:
Procedure: Play with the Sims Physics Motion CollisionLab
Work with 1D collisions at this level. Later (AP Physics) you'll use trigonometry to solve 2D collisions. Velocity to the right is positive, left is negative. Check your work in the simulation after you have completed the tables.
Important Formulas:
Perfectly Elastic Collisions: To begin a collision: To restart a collision:
Take some time to familiarize yourself with the simulation and perfect collisions. Play. Investigate. Learn.
Investigate the action of a more-massive attacking object striking a less-massive target object.
What happens to the more-massive attacking object? ______________________________________
What happens to the less-massive target object? __________________________________________
Investigate the action of a less-massive attacking object striking a more-massive target object.
What...

...CollisionLab Simulation
Purpose: To study elastic and inelastic collisions in one-dimension.
Background Information:
Momentum: is a measure of mass in motion. It is the product of mass x velocity.
Conservation of Momentum: in the absence of external forces, such as friction, the linear momentum of a system remains constant.
Procedure:
1. Open web browser and go to the site: http://phet.colorado.edu
2. Click “play with sims”, then “physics”, and then “motion”
3. Find the “CollisionLab”
4. Click “Run Now”
5. Today’s lab will be entirely on the “introduction” tab
6. Check the box “show values”, and the “more data” button is clicked (and other checkboxes as desired)
Part 1 – Elastic Collsions
Scenario #1: Elastic collision between balls of equal mass
Make sure elasticity is 100%
Masses should be equal
One velocity should be zero, the other some amount, arranged to collide
Run the simulation
Fill in data table below:
Object
Mass
Initial Velocity
Final Velocity
Initial Mom. (ρ)
Final Mom. (ρ)
1
2
1. What is the relationship between the initial and final total momentums?
2. Describe the motion of the balls before and after the collision?
Scenario #2: Elastic collision between balls of unequal mass, with more massive ball stationary
Same as scenario #1, except have unequal masses and the less massive...

...1) Introduction
This Lab is about conservation of momentum. It is to investigate the difference of momentum before and after collisions. Using the photo gates record the velocity of each cart, comparing momentum and kinetic energy to find the law. The experimental apparatus are two red carts in approximately same weight and a gold cart in lower weight than the red ones, a stable air track (blow a constant stream of air out through numerous tiny holes) with low friction and two photo gates.
2) Project description
2.1) Theory
We should have the concept of momentum to disassociate velocity and momentum. The linear momentum of an object is the product of the object’s mass and velocity. Linear momentum is a vector quantity that in the same direction as the velocity. P = m * v (kg. m/s) During a collision, it is usually straightforward to measure the mass and velocity of an object, so that its momentum just after the collision and just before the collision can be found. The collisions include elastic collision (one in which the total kinetic energy of the system after the collision is equal to the total kinetic energy before the collision, ideally with no loss of energy due to sound, heat, light, or deformation) and inelastic collision (one in which the total kinetic energy of the system is not the same before and after the...

...the ball; the depth of the crater would increase. This is because as there is loss in potential energy subsequently there is a gain in kinetic energy. The equation PE = m x g x h supports the fact that as height increases (keeping the mass constant) the energy stored, that is, the potential energy increases. So when the ball is released the energy stored inside the ball would get converted to kinetic energy of motion which collides with the clay slab resulting in a crater. Thus increasing the height increases the energy stored in the ball and so when dropped, more of the energy would be converted to kinetic energy as a result of which the velocity at which the ball would strike the crater would be more and increasing the impact force of collision resulting in a deeper crater.
* Variables-
* Dependent- The depth of the crater.
* Independent- The height at which the ball is dropped from.
* Control-
* Mass of ball
* Type of clay used
* Volume of clay used
* Type of ball used
* The dimensions of the clay slab used in each experiment
* Methods to control the variables-
* To increase the accuracy of the height of the ball-drop one can perform the experiment by the wall where markings according to our requirements of the ball drop can be made.
* Air resistance can also greatly affect the experiment due to which this practice has to be performed in a closed room and...

...system, if no net external force acts on a system of particles, the total linear momentum of the system cannot change. There are two simple types of collisions, elastic and inelastic. If the total kinetic energy of the two systems is conserved then the collision is known as elastic. If the kinetic energy is not conserved, then the collision is inelastic.
H = g/2 x t^2
x = v_xt
v_x = x √g/2(H)
m_b v_x = (m_b+ m_p)V
V^2 = 2gh
h = l (1 - cosϴ)
Apparatus: CENCO Ballistic Pendulum, meter stick, carbon paper, 2 sheets of white paper, metal ball, plumb bob.
Procedure:
In preparation to fire the metal ball from the spring gun, we moved the pendulum arm to its maximum position and out the line of fire.
We fired the spring gun to get an estimate of where the ball will drop on the floor.
We then set up the carbon paper between two sheets of white paper on the floor in the spot that the ball hit the floor.
We fired the spring gun 3 times, each time using a meter stick to record the vertical distance from the tip of the spring gun to the points on the floor.
We took the mean distance (x) and recorded it.
We released the pendulum arm to allow the ball to be caught by the pendulum’s ball catcher.
The ball was fired 3 times, each time giving a different reading on the scale that determines the angle of the inelastic collision. We took the mean angle (ϴ) and recorded it.
We measured the mass of the ball...