College lab report on enzymes

Topics: Enzyme, PH, Catalysis Pages: 6 (1294 words) Published: February 18, 2004
Lab Ex#8: "Enzymes: Catalysts of Life"

INTRODUCTION

Enzymes are protein organelles where chemical reactions take place to generate energy within our cells. Without the energy produced from the cell enzyme activity, we would not possess the catalyst activity necessary for energy to produce movement.

Each enzyme performs a specific function within our bodies. Those functions performed can be significantly altered with the introduction of variables outside their environment. Variables, such as temperature increases or decreases, can instigate dramatic effects on the enzyme and its intended function.

The enzyme has a three-dimensional structure that is specific for the acceptance of a unique like enzyme and when fused together they form a new complex product. The enzyme then returns to its original state, upon which time recycles this process of fusion with its specific substrate.

The experiment was to observe what occurs when the enzyme is introduced to a range of temperatures and to determine if an enzyme having similar characteristics will perform the same chemical reaction.

PROCEDURE

1. Formation and Detection of Benzoquinone:

- Stations were set up having three test tubes, a wax marker and a ruler for measuring. We were to indicate measurements on each test tube at 1cm and 2cm from the bottom. We then identified each test tube as 2a, 2b, and 2c.

- We filled each test tube with the following: 2a with 1cm of potato extract containing Catechol Oxidase and 1cm of 1% Catechol Solution; 2b with 1cm of potato extract containing Catechol Oxidase and 1cm of dH2O; 2c with 1cm of 1% Catechol Solution and 1cm of dH2O. We tapped each tube to completely mix the solution and recorded the time at zero.

- At zero time, each test tube was scaled for color concentration. A color range, zero to five, was to be used. If little color was present, we scaled the tube at zero, and if a deep brownish-gold color was visible, we were to scale the tube at five, all others were scaled within the specified range.

- We were also to propose a hypothesis. Our hypothesis was that tube 2a would present the strongest chemical reaction, and that tube 2b and 2c would react, however slightly.

- Following a five-minute interval we recorded the color concentration for each tube.

2. Effect of pH on Enzyme Activity:

- We set up our stations with seven test tubes measuring each test tube at 4cm, 5cm, and 6cm, from the bottom. We identified each test tube, with the numbers 2, 4, 6, 7, 10, and 12, since we felt that the test tubes should correlate with the pH solution being used.

- We fill each test tube with the following: 4cm of the pH solutions 2 through 12. We then filled the same test tubes with 1cm of potato extract. A final addition was made of 1cm of 1% Catechol Solution, the substrate for the potato extract enzyme. After completing each chemical additive, we completely mix the solutions and recorded the color concentrations.

- The hypothesis was that higher pH solutions would cause a stronger chemical reaction and the lower pH levels would not.

- Following a five-minute interval we recorded the color concentration for each tube.

3. Enzyme Specificity:

- The stations consisted of two test tubes. We indicated measurements on each test tube at 1cm and 2cm, from the bottom. We identified each test tube as 3a and 3b.

- We filled each test tube with the following: 3a with 1cm of potato extract containing Catechol Oxidase and 3b with 1cm of 1% Catechol Solution and 1cm of 1% Hydroquinone, an enzyme having similar characteristics to that of the Catechol solution. We completely mixed the solutions and record the time at zero and scaled the color intensity.

- Our hypothesis of the experiment results was that the Hydroquinone would not react the same as the potato extract and its intended substrate.

4. Effect of Temperature on Enzyme

- We set up a station of six test tubes. We indicated measurements on...
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