Cold War Tensions

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Chapter 14-The Uneasy Peace
Section 1-The Cold War Begins
An Iron Curtain Starts to Fall
1. US/USSR did not trust each other

An Uneasy Alliance
1. US, Britain, USSR + 3 other nations=Grand Alliance during WWII 2. Old hatreds in many nations
3. USSR
a. Resented fact that US, French, British supported whites b. US refused to recognize USSR until 1933
c. Soviet propaganda=fear of American capitalism with divisions between rich/poor and swings from prosperity to depression d. Stalin suspicious of Allie’s refusal to launch second front i. 2 year delay of invading France=secret plot to weaken USSR 4. US

a. World revolution emphasis of communism=frightening b. 1917-Soviets got separate peace agreement with Germany=no Soviet help=> US angry c. 1939-Hitler-Stalin pact
d. Fear of Stalin’s attacks on internal enemies in 30’s 5. Two Views of the World
a. USSR
i. Destruction-20 million Soviets had died
1. 25 million homeless
ii. Need to protect from rearmed Germany
iii. Need to rebuild shattered economy
iv. Security through permanently weakened Germany and pro-Soviet nations protecting western border b. US
i. Only 405,000 deaths
ii. Booming postwar economy=50% of world’s wealth iii. Most Americans felt proud of fight for democracy iv. Leaders imagined a world patterned after US-democratic, open to business expansion, free trade v. Nations solved differences by talking

Yalta Conference
1. February 1945-the Big Three-Roosevelt, Churchill, Stalin-met at Yalta, Russia=> work out control of postwar world a. Big Three Agreements
i. Stalin agreed to join fight against Japan after Germany surrendered for territories in Asia ii. Stalin pledged Soviet support for United Nations (UN) b. Germany

i. Stalin wanted to punish Germany=$20 billion in war payments=> half to help USSR rebuild shattered economy ii. Churchill/Roosevelt know Germany needed their help=> feared supporting Germany so it could pay Stalin iii. Each Nation would control the part of Germany its troops held at end of the war=> commission would later solve war payment problems c. Eastern Europe

i. Roosevelt and Churchill had to give in to Stalin’s demand for Soviet power in Poland, Romania, Bulgaria, Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia=protect western border ii. Roosevelt hoped to gain Stalin’s trust=no iron grip 2. April 12, 1945-Roosvelt died

Truman Comes to Power
1. April 13, 1945-Vice President Harry S. Truman=> President 2. FDR didn’t really communicate with Truman about foreign stuff=> deep mistrust of USSR 3. Hard-line approach to USSR
a. Learned form Appeasement to Germany in Munich
b. Criticized Soviet ambassador V.M. Molotov for not holding free elections in Poland 4. Meetings at Potsdam
a. July 1945-Truman, Stalin, Churchill met at Potsdam, Germany b. Bossed meeting around= news of atomic bomb
c. Agreement
i. Disarmament of Germany
ii. War industries dismantled
iii. Each nation got to take war payments form area controlled d. West to US, Britain, France=> East to USSR
i. Berlin carved up
e. Truman felt less inclined to cooperate with Stalin for help vs. Japan with atomic bomb 5. Tensions Rise
a. Stalin forced loyalty to USSR with phony trials/executions in East Europe i. Kept troops in Iran long after US/Britain had left ii. Iran/Truman protested to UN

b. 1946-US loaned $3.5 billion to Britain but ignored USSR plea for help c. February 9, 1946-Stalin gave speech denouncing Capitalism and saying...
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