Cold War Questions – all of this information can be found in your textbook chpts. 36 and 37, also with the notes online and possibly your test prep book
1. Below is a list of significant pieces of legislation passed during the presidencies of Harry Truman and Dwight D Eisenhower. What did the legislation say, why was it passed and what impact did the legislation have on our government and/or the American people
a. 22nd Amendment
*The 22nd Amendment, ratified on February 27, 1951, was primarily designed to establish that no US President can be elected to more than two terms. It also limits the maximum time a President may serve to 10 years, if one should succeed to the office. *The 22nd amendment was passed to prevent a situation where a President would act more like a benevolent dictator, rather than a President. Franklin D. Roosevelt, the only President to serve more than 8 years, served for most of his 4 terms, and lawmakers felt that it was too much power to give to one man, especially when you consider that the President appoints judges to the Supreme Court *The first president affected by the 22nd Amendment was Dwight Eisenhower, elected in two successive landslides, both over Adlai Stevenson, in 1952 and 1956.
b. Highway Act 1956
*Popularly known as the National Interstate and Defense Highways Act of 1956, the Federal-Aid Highway Act of 1956 established an interstate highway system in the United States. *The movement behind the construction of a transcontinental superhighway started in the 1930s when President Franklin D. Roosevelt expressed interest in the construction of a network of toll superhighways that would provide more jobs for people in need of work during the Great Depression *Because of the 1956 law, and the subsequent Highway Act of 1958, the pattern of community development in America was fundamentally altered and was henceforth based on the automobile.
c. Taft-Hartley Act
*Because labor disputes could interrupt commerce, it was of great importance to the federal government to maintain open communication between labor unions and employers. The Constitution's commerce clause, which allowed the federal government to regulate interstate commerce, was the constitutional basis for the act. * the act placed restrictions on unions that were already imposed on the employer, gave the employer a First Amendment right to free speech that had been severely limited by the former laws, limited the liability of employers based on acts of managers or supervisors to those who would be considered part of these supervisors' official duty, allowed states to enact right-to-work laws, which made it illegal to set union membership as a condition for employment, required a both sides of a labor contract to bargain in good faith, which means they must meet at regular times and try to reach an agreement on a range of issues related to the employment contract *created the Federal Mediation and Conciliation Service (FMCS) to assist in the settlement of labor disputes and increased the number of National Labor Relations Board (NLRB) members from three to five.
d. Servicemen’s Readjustment Act
*While World War II was still being fought, the Department of Labor estimated that, after the war, 15 million men and women who had been serving in the armed services would be unemployed. To reduce the possibility of postwar depression brought on by widespread unemployment, the National Resources Planning Board, studied postwar needs and recommended a series of programs for education and training * it offered Federal aid to help veterans adjust to civilian life in the areas of hospitalization, purchase of homes and businesses, and especially, education. *provided tuition, subsistence, books and supplies, equipment, and counseling services for veterans to continue their education in school or college. *By 1956, when it expired, the education-and-training portion of the GI Bill had disbursed $14.5 billion to...
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