Directions: The following question is based on the accompanying Documents 1 -- 14. (Some of the documents have been edited for the purpose of this exercise.)
This question is designed to test your ability to work with and understand historical documents. Write an essay that:
• Provides an appropriate, explicitly stated thesis that directly addresses all parts of the question and does NOT simply restate the question. • Discusses a majority of documents individually and specifically. • Demonstrates understanding of the basic meaning of a majority of the documents. • Supports the thesis with appropriate interpretations of a majority of the documents. • Analyzes the documents by explicitly grouping them in at least three appropriate ways. • Takes into the account both the sources of the documents and the authors’ point of view.
You may refer to relevant historical information not mentioned in the documents.
Discuss the various European views regarding the Cuban Missile Crisis.
In September, 1962 United States President John F. Kennedy received intelligence reports on a possible nuclear missile buildup in Cuba. American U-2 spy planes photographed Cuba for the next month while American intelligence noted the increasing number of Soviet ships going into and out of Cuba. On October 16th, President Kennedy was informed that the Soviets were building offensive missile sites in Cuba. Kennedy and his advisors developed three possible responses. The first was diplomatic action followed by military action if needed. The second option was to send military forces to Cuba without warning. The third option was to give a political warning to the Soviets and to blockade Cuba. In a speech on October 22, Kennedy informed Americans and the world populace of the presence of missiles in Cuba, announced a quarantine (blockade) of Cuba, and asserted that any nuclear missile launched at the United States from Cuba would require a “full retaliatory response upon the Soviet Union.”
Source: Central Intelligence Agency Map, October, 1962
Source: The Times (London), October 23, 1962.
If President Kennedy’s sources of intelligence about Cuba are reliable—and there is no reason to doubt them – the development there of launching sites for medium and intermediate range ballistic missiles is an astonishing provocation by the Soviet Union.
Source: Leslie, Illingworth, Daily Mail, Cuban Missile Crisis, October, 1962.
Source: John Price of France, memories submitted to BBC’s Talking Point, October 29, 2002.
I was in the RAF, stationed in Berlin, and was convinced that, after the tensions and frightfulness of the building of the Wall, the Cuba crisis would be resolved either by full nuclear war, or the hand-over of West Berlin to the Eastern bloc. Both results would have meant the failure of the whole policy of confrontation (without war) since the end of WW2. And the end of our whole way of life - if not our lives themselves.
Source: The Times (London), October 25, 1962
Turkey “Ready To Do Our Duty”
Mr. Inönii, the Turkish Prime Minister, speaking to the Cuba crisis today (Oct. 24) said in the Grand National Assembly that Turkey’s “whole hope” was that the dispute could be solved by...