1) The dispute that became known as the Cold War emerged over the division of Europe after WW2 was inevitable because of conflicting interests and mistrust – who would control post –war Europe.
- U.S/ United Kingdom position: the U.S and Great Britain argued for national self- determination through free elections throughout Europe.
- Soviet Position: Russia was intent on imposing communist. Stalin brought down an “Iron Curtain” (Churchill’s phrase) across Europe from the Baltic to the Adriatic and created a series of satellite governments.
2) George Kennan: in 1946, George Kennan, a Russian specialist and Secretary of State George Marshall’s most trusted adviser on the policy planning staff, warned that he believed that there could be no compromise with a rival power. Kennan believed that a team of foreign relations experts should development policies to contain Russian power, arguing that a strong resistance to the Soviets was too important to be left to Congress or public.
3) Marshall Plan was designed to prevent Western Europe from slipping into the Soviet sphere of influence. The Marshall Plan was an overwhelming success – by the 1950s Western Europe has become self –sustaining. With industrial recovery in Western Europe, communist influence faded.
North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO): a military alliance that included the U.S., Canada, and most of Western Europe in response to a concern that Europe needed to have a sense of security.
4) The Russians responded to containment by cutting off access to Berlin, demanding the withdrawal of American and Western European military forces –Truman refused and ordered an airlift to supply the city. In early 1949 Soviets called off the blockade.
5) In late 1940s the Cold War began to take shape as the U.S and Russia began arming themselves and seeking allies around the world –it soon became clear that air power and the capability to deliver nuclear...