Coherence

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PARAGRAPH COHERENCE

Coherence in a paragraph is the technique of making words, phrases, and sentences move smoothly and logically from one to the other. In other words, the ideas are so interwoven and "glued" together that the reader will be able to see the consistent relationship between them. It is obvious that if a paragraph is not unified, does not have a logical order, and does not have a consistent point of view, the reader is unlikely to grasp the point of the paragraph. In addition, there are other devices and techniques that will help you achieve coherence. In general, the coherence devices most helpful for making your communication clear for the reader are transitional words and phrases, repetition of key words and phrases, pronoun reference, and parallel sentence structure. TRANSITIONAL WORDS AND PHRASES 

One of the most common methods of establishing coherence in a paragraph is the use of transitional words and phrases. These devices indicate to the reader the specific relationship between what was said and what will be said. Coordinate Conjunctions 

Within a sentence, the coordinate conjunctions provide a coherent link to indicate relationships between parallel elements. The word and indicates a comparable idea; but and yet indicate a contrasting idea; or and nor indicate an alternative idea; for indicates a reason for a result already stated; and so indicates a conclusion from reasons already stated. Correlative Conjunctions 

Also within a sentence, correlative conjunctions are used to establish relationships between parallel elements. The conjunctions either/or, neither/nor, andwhether/or (not) are used to indicate parallel alternatives. The conjunctions not only/but (also) and both/and indicate parallel similarities. Words and Phrases That Indicate Specific Relationships

        To signify an additional idea - also, moreover, again, further, furthermore, in addition,                      likewise, too, first, initially, second, third, next, finally, last, another, other, then         To signify a comparison - likewise, similarly, in a like manner, in comparison, so it is         To signify a contrast - however, nevertheless, still unlike, in contrast, conversely, on the                      contrary, on the other hand, whereas         To signify a cause-effect relationship - therefore, thus, hence, then, consequently,                      accordingly, in conclusion, as a result         To signify an example or specific meaning - for example, for instance, to illustrate, for                      one thing, frequently, in general, in particular, namely, usually, specifically         To signify a summary - to sum up, to summarize, in short, to conclude, in conclusion, on                      the whole, in brief.

TRAIN OF THOUGHT
A full sentence is not always a full idea. It usually takes more than one sentence to develop a train of thought. Links in a train of thought include such words and phrases as conjunctions (and, but, so, therefore, because, once, still), pronouns (he, they, both), demonstrative adjectives (this, that), adverbs showing how things are related in time (once, then, later), in space (upward, downward, around), or as cause and result (as, as a result, because of), and synonyms that rename. Sentences may be linked in a train of thought by many words and phrases such as those listed below.     also 

    as a result 
    as well 
    at first 
    at last 
    earlier 
    finally 
    first, second 
    for example 
    further 
    however 
    in addition 
    indeed 
    in fact 
    in short 
    instead 
    later 
    likewise 
    more 
    moreover 
    once 
    on the contrary 
    on the other hand 
    other 
    rather 
    similar 
    so much for 
    such 
    that 
    that is 
    then 
    therefore 
    these 
    this 
    those 
    to sum up 
    what's more 
 
* A train of thought can be derailed by a shift of verb...
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