Cognitive Theory

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Cognitive psychology studies how information is processed by the brain and sense organs. It is concerned with issues of how people perceive, understand, make decisions about and remember information. Cognitive approach is learning through mental representation, this is what we call schemas. Our mental representations are the meaning that we give to objects, people and events that we experience. We used this to solve problems and make sense out of the world. The information we use to create a schema are gathered through our senses e.g smell, hearing, vision, taste and touch then it goes to our brain to be processed and made into our schemas. This is what we called assimilation. Schemas are not permanent sometimes due to a bad experience that doesn’t fit our existing schema we experience disequilibrium. To go back in an equilibrium state we try to create a new schema or reinforce our previous schema. This is what we called accommodation. For example, a man’s schema of a dog is friendly and obedient, but when rabid dogs attacked the man while walking his schema does not fit the experience so he’s in a state of disequilibrium. After the experience he reinforce his previous schema of dogs to not all dogs are friendly and obedient, they can be aggressive and vicious too. By adding information to his previous schema, he changes his state from disequilibrium to equilibrium. By creating a new schema or reinforcing our previous schema our behaviour changes. This is what we called adaptation. Jean Piaget hypothesized that infants are born with schema operating at birth that he called "reflexes." These reflexes are innate to us. Infant uses these reflexes to adapt to the environment, these reflexes are quickly replaced with constructed schema. Jean Piaget was interested to how children learn and how they think. Therefore, he uses his three children to make an experiment. He made use of two research method the naturalistic and clinical observation. Naturalistic...
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