FOUNDERS AND HISTORY OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIOUR THEORY
The first discrete, intentionally therapeutic approach to Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) to be developed was Rational Emotive Therapy (RET), which was originated by Albert Ellis, Ph.D. in the mid-1950's. Ellis developed his approach in reaction to his disliking of the in-efficient and in-directive nature of Psychoanalysis. The philosophic origins of RET go back to the Stoic philosophers, including Epictetus and Marcus Aurelius. Epictetus wrote in The Enchiridion, "Men are disturbed not by things, but by the view which they take of them." The modern psychotherapist most influential to the development of RET was Alfred Adler (who developed Individual Psychology). Adler, a neo-Freudian, stated, "I am convinced that a person's behavior springs from his ideas." Ellis was also influenced by behaviorists, such as John Dollard, Neal Miller, and Joseph Wolpe, and George Kelly (psychology of personal constructs). Ellis developed and popularized the ABC model of emotions, and later modified the model to the A-B-C-D-E approach. In the 1990's Ellis renamed his approach Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy. In the 1960's, Aaron Beck, M.D. developed his approach called Cognitive Therapy. Beck's approach became known for its effective treatment of depression. Also in the 1960's Maxie C. Maultsby, Jr., M.D. (a student of Ellis') developed Rational Behavior Therapy. Maultsby's contributions were numerous, including his emphasis on client rational self-counseling skills and therapeutic homework. Maultsby's contributions included his concept of "thought shorthand", to which he refers as "attitudes", Rational Emotive Imagery, Rational Self-Analysis, and the Five Criteria for Rational Behavior.
MAIN TENETS OF CBT
* Cognitive therapy rests upon the belief that what one thinks determines how one feels. * The therapist is supportive and empathic and uses experiments and empirical processes along with a collaborative alliance with the client, to explore thinking and alternatives. * Cognitive therapy has been used with a variety of disorders and problems (e.g. anxiety, phobias, depression). Theory of Personality
* Personality includes both genetic endowment and social influence. * It reflects the individual’s cognitive organization and structure. *
Emotions and behaviors are based on perceptions, interpretations, and assumptions. * Schemas have an important impact on how one operates cognitively. * Schemas: A person’s core beliefs and basic assumptions. * Schemas can either be functional or dysfunctional and more than one schema can compete with another.
* Cognitive Vulnerability: When a person’s beliefs and assumptions predispose him or her to psychological distress. Nature of Maladjustment.
* Maladjustment stems from irrational beliefs and distorted cognitions. * Maladaptive cognitions come from:
* Selective attention
* Maladaptive focusing
* Maladaptive self-arousal
* Repertory deficiencies
* Maladaptive cognitions lead to maladaptive, self-defeating behaviors. * Adaptive, self-enhancing behaviors come from a client’s self-enhancing thoughts and this can be taught. * Clients can be taught to shift from self-defeating thoughts to self-enhancing thoughts. The Counseling Process
Cognitive therapy and cognitive behavior modification uses a variety of techniques or procedures to assist clients in changing negative, self defeating responses. * The therapist might range from directive to unconditionally accepting, from scientific to empathic, from systemic to open or from suggestive to instructive. * It is highly eclectic and utilizes resources and techniques that fit with the client’s thought processes. * Both cognitive and behavioral strategies might be used. * Client and...
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