Chapyer 7: Cognition
Cognition: The mental activities associated with thought, decision making, language, and other higher mental processes. Basic Element of Thought: Concepts, Propositions, Images
1- Concrete concept: Concrete is something that can be seen or known. 2- Abstract concepts (logical & Natural): A concept that you can not always see or touch. Logical concepts: Concepts that can be clearly defined by a set of rules or properties. Ex: A Triangle can be defined if it only have three sides whose angles add up to 180 degree. Natural Concepts: Concepts that are not based on a precise set of attributes or properties, do not have clear-cut boundaries, and are often defined by prototype. Ex: For fruit, most people think of apple, peaches, or pears, they are far less likely to mention avocados. B) Propositions: Sentences that relate one concept to another and can stand as separate assertions. Ex: Sun rise from east. Salt melt in water. * Dogs chase cats (relationship between two concepts)
* Birds have wings ( individual's concept)
C) Visual Images: Mental pictures or representations of objects or events.
Decision making: The process of choosing among various courses of action or alternatives. Before we make a decision we have to think about two things: 1- The Utility or value to you of the outcomes each alternative might yield. 2- The Probability: That such results would actually occur. Not all people follow those two factors, they follow Herustics by using quick but fallible rules of thumb to make decisions. Heuristics: Mental rules of thumb that permit us to make decisions and judgments in a rapid and efficient manner. Availability Heuristic: A cognitive rule of thumb in which the importance or probability of various events is judged on the basis of how readily they come to mind. Ex: btsa2ib el ash5as le ana ba3refon bi LIU saida min beirut fa telka2yan b2ol el majority min beirut....
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