Coffee-Heart Rate Research Paper

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COFFEE USE - HEART RATE
RESEARCH PROJECT

COFFEE USE - HEART RATE
Part 1
The study used for this project is a nursing and health sciences study. One particular healthcare facility is trying to determine if it is a good idea to provide coffee in the waiting room for the patients. There are several other facilities that serve tea, coffee, and water, so this health care facility wants to determine if there is sufficient evidence to show that coffee increases the patient heart rates. The question that I as a researcher want to answer is whether ingesting coffee, increases ones heart rate. The independent variable of this study is Coffee, and the dependent variable in this study is Heart Rate. The confounding or lurking variables in this study are the amount of coffee consumed, what patients ate prior to providing sample, age of patients, diet of patients, existing medical conditions of patients, and the exercise regimen of the patients. Other confounding variables could be the amount of tobacco and alcohol use, and possible white coat syndrome. The type of data is quantitative, and it is measured at the interval level, numeric data with no natural zero point; intervals (differences) are meaningful but ratios are not. The sample for this study is 15 patients from a local health care facility waiting room. The population of the study is patients from the waiting rooms of all health care facilities in the state. The population is normally distributed before drinking coffee; because it has an even amount of data on either side of the mean. The population is slightly skewed to the right after drinking coffee, with more data to the right of mean; which does indicate increased heart rate after drinking coffee. This will be an observational study, due to the fact that we will be observing the effect of coffee on patient heart rates.

Findings of Data
Heart Rates Before Coffee| Heart Rates After Coffee|
60| 65|
60| 65|
65| 72|
70| 80|
75| 79|
75| 85|
77| 84|
78| 80|
80| 82|
84| 88|
88| 98|
90| 95|
90| 95|
100| 100|
Median = 78| Median = 84|
Mean = 78.3| Mean = 84|
Standard Deviation = 11.4| Standard Deviation = 11|
Variance = 130.5| Variance = 119.3|
Mode = Multimodal (60, 75, 90)| Mode = Multimodal (65, 80, 84, 95)| Range = 40| Range = 35|

Heart Rate Change
5| 5| 5| 5| 5| 5| 6| 6| 6| 7| 7| 7| 8| 9| 0|

Range- 9Standard Deviation- 2.02Mean-5.73Mode- 5, 6, 7 Min| Q1| Q2| Q3| Max|
0| | 5.73| | 9|

Part 2
To figure the Mean for before and after coffee we had to take the sum of the heart rates and divide it by the number of samples. In this case the number of samples was 15. Once that was done we needed to figure out the Standard Deviation for before and after coffee. To calculate that we had to take the Mean (X) and subtract it from each of the heart rates, then square the results and add them together. Once that was done we divided by the Degrees of Freedom (n-1), which is our number of samples (n = 15). Once we get that result we get the square root of that number and that is our Standard Deviation. After running the numbers we found that none of the heart rates were above or below two standard deviations. This proves that we have no Outliers or Rare Events.

X| X-X| (X-X)^2| | | | X| X-X| (X-X)^2| | |
60| -18.3| 334.89| | 130.4964286| | 65| -19| 361| | 119.2857143| 60| -18.3| 334.89| | Variance| | 65| -19| 361| | Variance| 65| -13.3| 176.89| | | | 72| -12| 144| | |

70| -8.3| 68.89| | 11.42350334| | 79| -5| 25| | 10.92179996| 75| -3.3| 10.89| | Standard Deviation| | 80| -4| 16| | Standard Deviation| 75| -3.3| 10.89| | | | 80| -4| 16| | |

77| -1.3| 1.69| | 3.75| 4| 84| 0| 0| | 70|
78| -0.3| 0.09| | Q1| Rounded Up| 84| 0| 0| | Q1| 80| 1.7| 2.89| | | | 85| 1| 1| | |
82|...
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