Coca Cola

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NO2

APRIL 1988

Page Performance evaluation of an activated sludge process using a personal computer spread sheet HA Nicholls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 65 Enhanced polyphosphate organism cultures in activated sludge systems Part 1: Enhanced culture development MC Wenttel, RE Lxwenthal, GA Ekama and GvR Marais . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A simplistic mass balance of storm-water pollutants for two urban catchments D Stephenson and IRA Green . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Caustic recovery from bottling plant effluent AE Simpson, FG Neytzell-de Wilde and CA Buckley . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . A review of the role of Nocurdia-like filaments in activated sludge foaming OJ Hao,PF Strom and YC Wu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Short Communication

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Rapid removal of the pituitary gIand of the sharptooth catfish Clarias gariepinus (Burchell) HJ Schoonbee and Swanepoel......................................... ............................................................... 111 Short Communication

Faecal clostridia and indicator bacteria levels in an eutrophic impoundment DP Sartory ............................................115 Guide to Authors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Back cover ISSN 0378-4738

Caustic recovery from bottling plant effluent
AE Simpson*, FG Neyttell-de Wilde and CA Buckley Pollution Research Group, Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Natal, King George V Avenue, Durban 4001, South Africa. Abstract The treatment process employed by most bottle washing plants for the recovery and recycle of water from sodium hydroxide bottle washer effluent involves filtration. activated carbon adsorption and ion exchange. The major disadvantage of the ion-exchange system is that the total dissolved solids load in the final discharge is actually increased above that of the effluent due to the regeneration chemicals. An alternative alternative process for the recovery and recycle of water from bottle washer effluent has been proposed and involves filtration, carbonation and reverse osmosis. In addition a final stage involving the electrolysis of the reverse osmosis brine concentrate in an electrochemica! membrane cell has been proposed. This will allow for the recovery and reuse of the sodium hydroxide and will minimise the total dissolved solids which are discharged to the wash drain. Investigations reported elsewhere, on the use of electrochemical techniques for caustic recovery from textile effluents have been successful. It is suggested that similar techniques used for the treatment of bottle washer effluent will be successful. The technical operating parameters and the economics of the process are therefore not discussed in this paper.

Introduction
South Africa is a water-scarce country that faces two major waterrelated problems, viz. a critical water shortage by the year 2020 AD; and the salination of existing water supplies due to the discharge of industrial contaminants into our waterways (Kricl, 1975). The Water Research Commission has since 1971 sponsored research in connection with water management and effluent treatment, in order co assist industry and protect the quality of our water resources. This has led also to the development of groups/research centres with expertise in the treatment of industrial effluents, such as the Pollution Research Group at the University of Natal. Emphasis has been placed on the total recycle of effluents, in which water is recovered and purified for reuse; and processing chemicals are separated from effluents for reuse, thus eliminating or significantly reducing the...
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