Coal Bed Methane: Converts into Peat after Burial under Reducing Conditions

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TABLE OF CONTENTS

1.0 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………… 5 1.1 About CBM…………………………………………………………………………… 5 1.2 Origin of methane………………………………………………………………… 5

2.0 CBM In India, An Overview…………………………………………………….. 5 2.1 India’s Energy Scenario………………………………………………………… 5 2.2 CBM Activities In India…………………………………………………………. 6 2.3 Development Of CBM In India……………………………………………… 7 2.4 CBM Statistics In India…………………………………………………………. 7

3.0 CBM Reserves & Indian Status……………………………………………….. 9 3.1 CBM Reserves………………………………………………………………………. 9 3.2 CBM Production Status In India…………………………………………… 10 3.3 Development Of CBM, Indian Initiative……………………………….. 11

4.0 CBM Projects In India……………………………………………………………. 12 5.1 CBM Current Projects In India (By CIL)………………………………. 12 5.2 CBM Miscellaneous Projects In India………………………………….. 12

5.0 CBM Market In India……………………………………………………………… 14 6.3 Cost Benefit Analysis………………………………………………………….. 15 6.4 Market Competitors & Their Share…………………………………….. 15 6.5 SWOT Analysis For Different Companies…………………………….. 16

6.0 Coal Bed Methane (CBM) Rounds in India……………………………… 17 7.6 CBM Round I & II………………………………………………………………… 17 7.7.1 Allotment In Round-I (under First Order of Bidding)….. 17 7.7.2 Blocks Awarded On Nomination Basis……………………….. 18 7.7.3 Blocks Awarded Under CBM Policy……………………………. 18 7.7 Round- II Awarding Of Blocks …………………………………………… 18 7.8 Allotment In Round-III ……………………………………………………… 19 7.0 Development Of CBM (Indian Initiatives) ………………………..……. 20 8.9 Indian Policies for CBM……………………………………………………. 20 8.10 Fiscal Terms ……………………………………………………………………. 20

8.0 CBM Future In India ……………………………………………………………. 22 9.11 Challenges In Implementation………………………………………. 22 9.12 Prospects Of CBM In India ……………………………………………. 23 8.3 Opportunities Of CBM In India ………………………………………. 23 8.4 Awareness About CBM …………………………………………………. 23

9.0 Concluding Remarks …………………………………………………………… 25 10.0 Bibliography ……………………………………………………………………….. 25

1.0 INTRODUCTION
1.1 ABOUT CBM
The history of CBM goes back to 1908, when the organization was founded by the German Pastor Ernst Jacob Christoffel. Since then, CBM has become one of the leading professional organizations for people with disabilities worldwide. Currently, CBM supports over 1000 projects in over 100 countries. CBM's vision is of an inclusive world in which all persons with disabilities enjoy their human rights and achieve their full potential. 1.2 ORIGIN OF METHANE

Coal bed methane evolves during the transformation of the organic matter in the swamp, which later converts into peat after burial under reducing condition. As temperature increases the peat converts into lignite followed by sub-bituminous, bituminous low-volatile medium volatile, high volatile anthracite and graphite. This process is known as coalification. During this process at early stage biogenic methane evolves, later thermogenic methane is formed. Much of the methane generated by the coalification process escapes to the surface or migrates into adjacent reservoir or other rocks, but a portion is trapped within the coal itself. In early stages of coalification, biogenic methane is generated as a by-product of bacterial respiration. Aerobic bacteria (those that use oxygen in respiration) first metabolize any free oxygen left in the plant remains and surrounding sediments. In fresh water environments, methane production begins immediately after the oxygen is depleted. Species of anaerobic bacteria (those that don’t use oxygen) then reduce carbon dioxide and produce methane through anaerobic respiration. When a coal’s temperature underground reaches about122°F and after a sufficient amount of time, most of the biogenic methane has been generated, and about two-thirds of the original moisture has been expelled, the coal attains an...
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