Outline two principles that define the cognitive level of analysis. Plan:
Key words: Outline, two principles, CLOA
Principles used: mental processes guide behavior and cognitive processes are influenced by social and cultural factors. Step 1: introduce CLOA.
Step 2: explain how information is processed for the first principle. Step 3: use Bartlett (1932) for the second principle.
Step 4: in the conclusion, relate them to the cognitive level of analysis. Answer:
The mind can be conceptualized as the set of mental processes that are carried out by the brain. Cognition is a concept referred to any cognitive processes like memory, language and perception. One goal of cognitive research is to discover possible principles underlying cognitive processes. One of the fundamental principles of the cognitive level of analysis is that human beings are information processers and that mental processes guide behavior. The mind can be seen as a complex machine – rather like an intelligent information-processing machine using hardware (the brain) and software (mental representations). Information input the mind via bottom-up processing –that is, from the sensory system, and processed in the mind by the top-down processing via pre-stored information in the memory, which results an output in the form of behavior. A second principle that define the cognitive level of analysis is that cognitive processes are influenced by social and cultural factors. And one of the firsts to say this was Frederic Bartlett who coined the term schema, which is defined as the mental representations of the world. Bartlett’s study (1932) ‘The War of The Ghosts”, which was based on a Native American legend is a perfect example of how memory as a cognitive process, is influenced by social and cultural factors. Bartlett asked his participants to read through the story twice, without mentioning the purpose of the experiment. He then asked them to recall the story in different time...