Clinical Study: Application of the Neuman Systems Model on a Patient with Hypokalemia

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Chapter 1
Introduction
Background and Rationale of the Study
With concerns of our day to day living we do not have enough time and budget to be choosy of the type of food or the nutritional value of it, what we think of nowadays is just to have something to satisfy our hunger without considering the nutrients that our body needs each day. When we hear diet nowadays often we see it as losing weight by means of controlling food intake, but the truth is diet could also mean eating nutritious foods to supplement our body’s needs of nutrients and the type of foods that we are going to consume.

As statistics report show that in the United States as many as 20% of hospitalized patients are hypokalemic; however, hypokalemia is clinically significant in only about 4-5% of these patients. Severe hypokalemia is relatively uncommon. Up to 14% of outpatients who undergo laboratory testing are found to be mildly hypokalemic .Approximately 80% of patients who are receiving diuretics become hypokalemic. Sex Incidence is equal in males and females.

The researcher chose hypokalemia as a topic for a case study in acute adult diseases for the reason that hypokalemia is a fatal disease that is often neglected by the people in the sense that people does not know what the disease is all about. The researcher believes that through studying the whole course of illness, insights and new information can be obtained in dealing with hypokalemia which could help students, nurses and any researcher who would endeavor in the study of hypokalemia Theoretical Framework

The researcher aimed to utilize Neuman Systems Model in a client with hypokalemia. This theory holistically developed to meet or complement for the client’s needs the researcher wants to verify and to validate the theory by using it on an acute condition called hypokalemia. The unique focus of the Neuman Systems Model is the wellness of the client/client system in relation to environmental stress and reactions to stress (Fawcett,1995).

In relation to its wholistic approach According to the Neuman Systems Model and systemic perspective in general, health and wellness is defined as the coordination or the degree of system stability, that is, the condition in which all parts and subparts (variables) are in balance or harmony with the whole of the client/client system (Neuman,2002)

Betty Neuman’s Systems Model is based on concepts related to stress and reaction to stress. The Neuman Systems Model includes the physiological, psychological, sociocultural, developmental, and spiritual variables at all levels of the system (Neuman, 2002). The physiological variable deals with mental relationships and processes. The sociocultural variable deals with those functions of the system that involve social and cultural interactions and expectations. The developmental variable deals with developmental processes and needs that vary as the system matures. The spiritual variable deals with the system’s beliefs and their influence and is, according to Neuman, the least understood despite its importance (Frisch, 2006).

Basic Structure consists of common client survival factors, as well as unique individual characteristics. It represents the basic system energy resources (Neuman, 2002).
Client/client system a composite of variables (physiological, psychological, sociocultural, developmental, and spiritual), each of which is a subpart of all parts, forms the whole of the client. The client as a system is composed of a core or basic structure of survival factors and surrounding protective concentric rings. The concentric rings are composed of similar factors, yet serve varied and different purposes in either retention, attainment, or maintenance of system stability and integrity or combination of these. The client is considered an open system in total interface with the environment. The client is viewed as a system, and the term can used interchangeably with the client/client system (Neuman, 2002)....
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