Climates and Climate Related Factors

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Climates and Climate Related Factors
Tropical wet climates or wet equatorial climates are usually found in areas near the equator as the name states. These areas include the Amazon, Congo, Southeast Asia and are sometimes found in the trade wind belts. The Koppen symbol for this type of climate is Af. This climate has the smallest temperature range in the world being between 2 and 3.6 degrees. These areas don’t have a dry season because of the close proximity to the equator which covers 5-10 degrees. The weather remains constant being warm and wet year around. Tropical wet climates see 60-100 inches of rain annually and experience convective thunderstorms. This climate is known for being seasonless due to the consistency in day to day weather. The reason for thse constant weather patterns is mainly location. The latitude position allows sun coverage directly above creating uniform insolation. Also, the ITCZ creates the year around humid, unstable air. These weather conditions create oxisol and latosol soils which are the least fertile; however, are an ideal location for tropical rainforests to emerge. Tropical rainforests and selva are home to animals such as birds, reptiles and insects. Those who live in these types of climates may use the weather to their advantage with agriculture, forestry, and with slash and burn cultivation.

Tropical savanna climates are found further from the equator extending to 25°N and S latitude. The Koppen symbol for this type of climate is Aw. Characteristics that make this climate distinctive is the alternation of a wet and dry season. Locations that experience the Aw climate are Africa, S. America, and N. Australia. Winters in this climate are dry with clear skies and are associated with subtropical highs. The summers are wet with many thunderstorms anf convectional rain of the ITCZ. The tropical savanna sees an average of 35 to 70 inches of rain annually which mostly comes from the summer season. The average annual tempeteature range is 5 to 15°. A surplus of the water supply comes during the summer. These weather conditions create a laterite soil type making it an ideal location for grasslands and tall grasses to thrive. These grasslands are home to lions, gazelles and zebras. Those who live in these locations can create ranches with animals or use the wildlife to their advantage for ecotourism.

The tropical monsoon climate is similar to the tropical savanna climate in the way they both have wet summers and dry winters. The Koppen symbol for this climate is Aw. This type of climate is found in areas such as southeast Asia, western Africa, northeastern South America, the Phillipines, northeastern Australia, and some islands of the East Indies. It isn’t uncommon to see 30 inches of rain within two or three months in the summer. The annual total rain in inches falls within 100 and 200. There is a surplus of rainfall in the summer and a deficit in the winter. The tropical monsoon climates are dominated by offshore winds and seasonal reversal of winds. Latosol soils, red or yellow in color, are found in the Aw climate allowing deciduous forests with some grasses to grow. Birds, reptiles and insects call this climate home. Those who live in tropical monsoon climate can build plantations, grow rice or sugarcane.

The tropical desert climate, or Bwh, is found in North Africa and southwestern Eurasia. Moist winds are kept out of this area by the Andes mountains. These locations are found 25-30 degrees N and S latitude. The tropical desert climate experiences very hot summers and mild winters. The annual temperature ranges 15 to 25°F with scarce rainfall typically less than 12 inches. Climatic controls that cause these weather patterns are cool ocean currents that cool any air that comes across it and subsidence from subtropical highs. The desert has aridosol soil which is fertile, but requires irrigation. Snakes, birds, reptiles and rabbits call the tropical desert climate home. Those...
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