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Climate of Pakistan:
Pakistan lies in the temperature zone. The climate is varied throughout the country, characterized by hot summer and cold winter. The rainfall occur in the upper parts of the Pakistan is usually from the Western Disturbance. From June to September most of the country is lashed by the South West Monsoon.
Pakistan has recorded one of the highest temperatures in the world Mohenjo-daroo, Sindh, 53.5o C (128.3o F) on 26 May, 2010. It is not only the hottest temperature ever recorded in Pakistan, but also the hottest reliably measured temperature ever recorded in the continent of Asia. The factors bringing variation in the climates of Pakistan are latitudinal location, proximity to sea level, rough topography, continentitlity, marine influence in the extreme south, vegetation cover, and soil contents. Climate of Pakistan can be explained as:
1. Latitudinal Extent:
Pakistan is located on a great landmass north of the tropic of Cancer (between latitudes 24° and 37° N), it has a continental type of climate characterized by extreme variations of temperature, both seasonally and daily. The figure shows the position of Pakistan in the world, as its latitudes are given in the figure. [pic]
Due to its subtropical location, Pakistan has two main seasons. The two seasons are summer and winter. The summer season of the country lasts for seven months in plain and for four months in highland. On the other hand, the winter season varies for five months in plain and seven months in highland. These two main seasons of Pakistan are further sub-divided into four sub-seasons, these are:
|Season name |Time duration | |Cold |Mid-November to Mid-April. | |Hot |Mid-April to June. | |Warm |Mid-September to Mid-November. | |Monsoon |July to Mid-September. | | | |
Pakistan is located in the southwest of Asia with lofty Himalayas and Karakorum forming its northern region, while the southern part is bounded by the Arabian sea. The tropic of cancer passes through south of the country. Pakistan extends northeast to southwest from latitude 370N to 23(1/2) 0N and longitude 60oE to 75oEast (as shown in the above map). The northeastern and northwestern part of the country consists of high mountain ranges like Himalayas, Hindu Kush and Karakorum with highest peaks like, K-2 (8475m), Nanga Parbat (7980m), Rakkaposhi (7665m) and Trichmir (7569meters). It covers an area of 803,944 sq.km, out of which 60% in the northwest farm mountain terrain and tableland and the remaining 40% is the Indus Plain.
Four rainfall regions have been identified i.e. arid, semi-arid, sub-humid, and humid. The rainfall concentration decreases from 171.4cm (68.6inches) at Murree in the north to 3.4cm (1.5inches) at Nokkundi in the south. The eastern part of Pakistan receives heavy rains during summer, from southwesterly currents, called monsoon, whereas the western parts have high rains in winter, from southwesterly winds, called western disturbances. The extreme north of the country has heavy rains from local thunderstorms caused by convectional uplifting of air parcel due to local heating. ➢ Rainy seasons:
Pakistan experiences four rainy seasons...