Climate Change in Vietnam

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HCM CITY UNIVERSITY OF TECHNOLOGY (HUTECH)
FACULTY OF ENVIRONMENT & BIOTECHNOLOGY
HUMAN AND ENVIRONMENT
CLIMATE CHANGE

CONTENTS

I. CLIMATE CHANGE
I.1. Greenhouse gas emission
I.2. Manifestation of climate change in Vietnam
II. IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON THE ENVIRONMENT AND SOCIO-ECONOMY II.1. Impacts on ecosystems
II.2. Impacts on the economy
II.2.1. Impacts on agriculture and aquaculture
II.2.2. Impacts on the energy sector
II.3. Impacts on other economic sectors
II.4. Impacts on society

I. CLIMATE CHANGE:
I.1. Greenhouse gas emission:
Greenhouse gas emission (CO2, CH4, N2O) has continuously increased globally since the industrial revolution, especially due to human’s activities including the exploitation of fossils for industrial and agricultural production and transportation. Greenhouse gas accumulated over an extended period causes a greenhouse effect, which raises the global temperature. The level of greenhouse gas per person in Vietnam is lower than the world’s average level (Table 1.1), but Vietnam is one of the countries that is most affected by climate change. Table 1.1. Estimated greenhouse gas emmission level per person Unit: Tons of CO2 equivalent/person

| Year 2004| Year 2010|
America *| 20| 21,6|
Europe *| 11| 11|
The world’s average *| 5| |
China *| 4| |
Vietnam **| 1,5| 1,6|
Source: (*) Climate Change 101: Understanding and Responding to Global Climate Change, 2007
(**) Estimation in Vietnam Initial National Communication - Under the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate change, MoNRE, 2003

Vietnam conducted a greenhouse gas emission inventory in 1993 (The first national inventory notice, 2004), in 1998 (Greenhouse gas emmision inventory report, 2008) and in 2000 (The second national notice, 2010). The inventory result showed that the total greenhouse gas emission in 2000 was 150.9 million tons of eq.CO2. The emission structure has changed however compared to the previous years. The proportion of emission compared to the total figure has increased in the sectors of waste, energy and industrial processes (Diagram 1.1). Diagram 1.1. The evolution of GHG emission of each sector in 1993,1998,2000

The inventory result in 2000 showed that agriculture was the biggest source of emission with 65 million tons of eq.CO2 (accounting for 43.1%), which was followed by the energy sector (35%). But the agricultural emission proportion compared to the total emission reduced against the previous 2 inventories. GHG emission inventory research in sectors showed that only forestry and land use restructuring were able to absorb and reduce CO2. CO2 absorption by the forests and other kinds of land coverage was 75.74 million tons of eq.CO2, and by soil 90.85 million tons of eq.CO2. Totally, GHG emission from agriculture and land use restructuring was 15.1 million tons, accounting for 10% of the total emission. There is much scientific evidence showing that the earth is heating up due to increasing GHG emission and global climate change is taking place rapidly and with significent impact. Thus, if GHG emission continues to increase, the impacts of climate change will be more serious. Countries, that have long coastlines and are located near the equator like Vietnam will have to face great impacts from climate change. I.2. Manifestation of climate change in Vietnam:

Climate change is taking place and causing great changes, which are shown in extreme and unusual weather phenomena experienced recently such as increasing temperature, strong storm, heavy rains, floods, drought, and rising sea level etc. Temperature: Over the last 50 years (1958-2007), the annual average temperature...
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