TOPIC ON CLIMATE CHANGE: CHALLENGES IN POST-KYOTO NEGOTIATIONS
COURSE NAME INTERNATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL LAW (503)
The Chairman LL.M. Examination Committee 2007 Department of Law University of Dhaka
M. H. M. Shihab Ahmed Shirazee Reg No: Ha-2429 Session: 2006-2007 Roll No: 252 LL.M. (Specialized)
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Acknowledgement Abstract Introduction Scope of the research Objectives Methodology Glossary and Abbreviations Chapter 1 Climate Change, Kyoto Protocol and Post Kyoto Negotiations 1.1 Releases greenhouse gases into the atmosphere effects climate change 1.2 Rising levels of greenhouse gases are already changing the climate 1.3 UNFCC to tackle the challenges posed by Climate Change 1.4 The Kyoto Protocol and the Marrakech Accords 1.5 Struggle of negotiations for the post-Kyoto period in the UNFCCC Chapter 2 Unresolved Issues of Kyoto Protocol Chapter 3 Post Kyoto Climate Change Discussions on COP 3.1 Nations Climate Change Conference in Bali, Indonesia 3.2 United Nations Climate Change Conference in Poznań, Poland Chapter 4: Current Position of the Discussion on a Post Kyoto Regime 4.1 EU position 4.2 U.S. position 4.3 Position of Japan 4.4 Position of major developing countries Chapter 5 Challenging Issues in Post Kyoto Negotiations 5.1 Constructive engagement with the U.S. 5.2 To strengthen the Commitments of developing Countries 5.3 Allocation of emission allowances 5.4 To cut off coal emissions 5.5 Bunker fuel emissions 5.6 Reduced Emissions from Deforestation and Degradation (REDD) 5.7 Climate friendly technology
iii iv v vi vii viii ix
1 1 2 3 4 5
13 16 18 20
22 23 24 25 27 29 30
Chapter 6 A Proposal for the Post Kyoto Climate Regime 6.1 Key Principles for a New International Agreement 6.2 Potential Global Climate Policy Architectures 6.3 Key Design Issues and Elements Chapter 7 Conclusion References List of figures 1. CO2 emissions by fossil fuel type for the globe and several countries 2. International and domestic aviation CO2 emissions (Mt) for selected Annex I Parties 25 28 32 33 36 37 38
I would like to express my gratitude to all those who gave me the possibility to complete this thesis. I want to thank the Department of Law of the University of Dhaka for giving me permission to commence this thesis in the first instance, to do the necessary research work and to use departmental library. I have furthermore to thank the authority of British Council Library, Dhaka for giving me to use library and surfing Internet. I am deeply indebted to my supervisor Prof. Dr. Asif Nazrul Islam from the Department of Law of University of Dhaka whose help, stimulating suggestions and encouragement helped me in all the time of research for and writing of this thesis. My classmates from the Department of Law supported me in my research work. I want to thank them for all their help, support, interest and valuable hints. Especially I am obliged to Romin Tamanna, Sadia Afreen, Aparajita Alam, Swadipta Alam. I also want to thank Firoj Rana for all his assistance on the computer work. One of my friends Nozaira Sultana was of great help in difficult times. My brother, Shiblee Shirazee looked closely at the final version of the thesis for English style and grammar, correcting both and offering suggestions for improvement. Especially, I would like to give my special thanks to my mother Mrs. Hasina Shiraz whose patient love enabled me to complete this work.
An objective vision has been in progress of the negotiations of commitments under the UNFCCC for the period after 2012. This thesis discusses the development of these negotiations. As part of the development discussion it is argues that the that most promising structure for establishing a framework that will control and reduce global greenhouse gas emissions should be a new protocol under the United Nations Framework Convention...