The client–server model is an approach to computer network programming developed at Xerox PARC during the 1970s. It is now prevalent in computer networks. Email, the World Wide Web, and network printing all apply the client–server model. The model assigns one of two roles to the computers in a network: Client or server. A server is a computer system that selectively shares its resources; a client is a computer or computer program that initiates contact with a server in order to make use of a resource. Data, CPUs, printers, and data storage devices are some examples of resources. This sharing of computer resources is called time-sharing, because it allows multiple people to use a computer (in this case, the server) at the same time. Because a computer does a limited amount of work at any moment, a time-sharing system must quickly prioritize its tasks to accommodate the clients. Clients and servers exchange messages in a request-response messaging pattern: The client sends a request, and the server returns a response. To communicate, the computers must have a common language, and they must follow rules so that both the client and the server know what to expect. The language and rules of communication are defined in a communications protocol. All client-server protocols operate in the application layer. Whether a computer is a client, a server, or both, it can serve multiple functions. For example, a single computer can run web server and file server software at the same time to serve different data to clients making different kinds of requests. Client software can also communicate with server software on the same computer. Communication between servers, such as to synchronize data, is sometimes called inter-server or server-to-server communication.
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