Clauses

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  • Topic: Sentence, Clause, Syntactic entities
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  • Published : April 16, 2013
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CLAUSES
Seminar paper

Contents:

1. Introduction3
2. Independent clauses3
2.1 Declarative clauses4
2.2 Interrogative clauses4
2.3 Exclamative clauses……………………………………………………………………………..6 2.4 Imperative clauses6
2.5 Non-clausal material7
3. Finite dependent clauses7
3.1 Complement clauses7
3.2 Adverbial clauses8
3.3 Relative clauses8
3.4 Comparative clauses9
3.5 Peripheral clauses9
4. Non-finite dependent clauses10
4.1 Infinitive clauses10
4.2 Ing-clauses11
4.3 Ed-participle clauses11
4.4 Verbless clauses12
5. Dependent clauses with no main clause12
6. Clause structures13
6.1 Multiple class membership of verbs14
7. Syntactic function of clause elements……………………………………………………14 7.1 Subject…………………………………………………………………………………………..15 7.2 Object (direct and indirect)……………………………………………………………………...17 7.3 Complement: subject and object………………………………………………………………...18 7.4 Adverbial………………………………………………………………………………………...19 8. Order of clause elements…………………………………………………………………………..20 9. Conclusion………………………………………………………………………………………….21 10. The article…………………………………………………………………………………………22

1. Introduction

Sentences are either SIMPLE or MULTIPLE. A simple sentence consists of a single independent clause. A multiple sentence contains one or more clauses as its immediate constituents. Multiple sentences are either COMPOUND or COMPLEX. In a compound sentence the immediate constituents are two or more COORDINATE clauses. In a complex sentence one or more of its elements, such as direct object or adverbial, are realized by a SUBORDINATE clause. Elements such as subject and verb are constituents of sentences and also of clause within sentences. We shall speak of CLAUSES and CLAUSE STRUCTURE whenever what we say applies both to sentences and to the clauses of which sentences are composed. Thus a complex sentence with one subordinate clause can be analysed twice over, once for the sentence as a whole and once for the subordinate clause included within the sentence:

A (adverbial)
S V Od (conj.) S V Od Sentence: You can borrow my car / if you need it. Subordinate clause

2. Independent clauses

Types of independent clause
An independent clause is a clause which is not a part of any larger clause structure. However, independent clauses can be coordinated, and they can include embedded dependent clauses: - simple independent clause (single clause):

You can give me a cheque.
- coordinated independent clauses (two or more coordinated clauses):
He was crying and so I gave him back his jacket.
- complex independent clause (with one or more dependent clauses):
If you pay too much they’ll give us the money back.
All independent clauses are finite, that is, they contain finite verb form which specifies tense (e.g. is, looked) or modality (e.g. can, would).

|speech-act |functional |clause |structural |example | |informing |statement |declarative |SV structure |It’s strong | |elicting |question |interrogative |VS structure |Is it strong? | | | | |wh-word + VS structure |Where is she? | | | | |wh-word structure |Who was there? | |directing |command |imperative |V structure (no S) |Be strong!...
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