(COMMIUNICATION ENGLISH PRACTICAL)
CLASSIFICATION OF TEXTILE INDUSTRY
(SPINNING & WEAVING)
processing and treatment of raw cotton; spinning, throwing, texturising, creping, extruding, mercerising, impregnating, processing and treatment of fibres, filaments, threads, tyre cords, or yarns of all descriptions including animal or vegetable fibres, artificial silk, cotton, flax, pure silk, filament, synthetic fibres or wool, or any of them combined with one another or with any other animal, natural or synthetic fibre; weaving, including hand weaving braids, fabrics, materials and/or webbing tapes of all kinds and descriptions; dyeing, bleaching, coating, calendering, cleaning and/or finishing of all types of fabrics, filament yarns, wool tops, yarns and articles of all descriptions up to and including the completed product; printing including hand printing, screen and/or roller printing and stamping of fabrics and/or articles of all kinds and descriptions; mending and/or repairing (including invisible mending) of fabrics and/or articles of all kinds and descriptions; manufacturing of artificial silk, filament yarns, man made fibres and/or synthetic fibres; knitting and the manufacture of hosiery, half hose, children’s hose, underwear, outerwear, jersey piecegoods, fabrics and like goods or materials; storing, sorting, scouring, carbonising, mixing, blending and combing of wool and top-making; storing, blending, carding or garnetting of wool, hair, or other fibres, felting, needling, milling, tentering and/or drying; and every operation, process, duty and function or calling carried on or performed in or in connection with or incidental to any of the foregoing INDUSTRIAL PROCESS DESCRIPTION
This section describes the major industrial processes in the textile industry, including the materials and equipment used and the processes employed. The section is designed for those interested in gaining a general understanding of the industry, and for those interested in the interrelationship between the industrial process and the topics described in subsequent sections of this profile -- pollutant outputs, pollution prevention opportunities, and Federal regulations. This section does not attempt to replicate published engineering information that is available for this industry. Refer to Section IX for a list of reference documents that are available. Note also that Section V, Pollution Prevention Opportunities, provides additional information on trade-offs associated with the industrial processes discussed in this section. This section describes commonly used production processes, associated raw materials, the byproducts produced or released, and the materials either recycled or transferred off-site. This discussion identifies where in each process wastes may be produced. This section concludes with a description of the potential fate (via air, water, and soil pathways) of process-specific waste products. III.A. INDUSTRIAL PROCESSES IN THE TEXTILE INDUSTRY
Much of the following section is based upon “Best Management Practices for Pollution Prevention in the Textile Industry,” published by the U.S. EPA Office of Research and Development. Additional references are cited in the text. The textile industry is comprised of a diverse, fragmentof establishments that produce and/or process textile-related products (fiber, yarn, fabric) for further processing into apparel, home furnishings, and industrial goods. Textile establishments receive and prepare fibers; transform fibers into yarn, thread, or webbing; convert the yarn into fabric or related products; and dye and finish these materials at various stages of production. The process of converting raw fibers into finished apparel and nonapparel textile products is complex; thus, most textile mills specialize. Little overlap occurs between knitting and weaving, or among production of manmade, cotton, and wool...