Classification of Literature

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CLASSIFICATIONs OF LITERATURE

I. Divisions of Literature

Literature
Prose
Poetry
Fiction
Nonfiction
Dramatic
Narrative
Lyric
Drama
Short Story
Novel
Tale
Fable
Myth
Legends
Folktales
Essay
Biography
Autobiography
Diary
History
Chronicle
News
Anecdote
Tragedy
Comedy
Opera
Operetta
Ballad
Epic
Metrical Tale
Metrical Romance
Ode
Sonnet
Song
Elegy

POINT OF COMPARISON| PROSE| POETRY|
Form| Paragraph| Verse|
Language| Words and rhythms of ordinary and everyday language| Metrical, rhythmical, figurative language| Appeal| Intellect| Emotions|
Aim| Convince, Inform, Instruct| Stirs the readers imagination, present an ideal of how life should be and how life can be|

A. Prose –is an ordinary form of written or spoken language without rhyme or meter, either fiction or nonfiction.Prose is writing that resembles everyday speech. The word prose is derived from the Latin word, “prosa” which literally means straightforward. Prose is adopted for the discussion of facts and topical reading and does not adhere to any particular formal structures other than simple grammar.

* Fiction –isthe form of any narrative or informative work that deals, in part or in whole, with information or events that are not factual, but rather, imaginary—that is, invented by the author. 

1. Drama –is the stage presentation of an action or story. It is a story in either verse or prose to be presented on stage. -a term generally applied to a type of literature that seeks to present actual life in brief intense form visibly in front of an audience. -a dialogue written for interpretation by several characters with directions from the author telling what the characters do and with directions giving the background or locale of the action. Playwrights–aredrama writers.

Types of Drama:
a. Comedy –is shown if man is victorious in the struggle of forces (not necessarily funny). b. Tragedy –is shown if man is overcome or defeated by the opposing forces (does not necessarily end in violence and death).

2. Short Story–is a brief story usually with one character or two and a simple plot. It can be read in a short span of time. Edgar Allan Poe –is the Father of short story and popularized this literary genre.

3. Novel –is an invented prose narrative that is usually long and complex and deals especially with human experience through a connected sequence of events. One example of a novel is fantasy novel which is often set in worlds much different from our own and usually includes magic, sorcery, and mythical creature.

4. Tale –is an imaginative narrative of an event usually a story of fantasy like folktales, fairy tales and tall tale. -reflects man’s desire to know the unknown.
-full of magic, enchantment and fantastic situations. Though unreal, it is full of sound and practical wisdom that is real and worthwhile.
-helps man find solutions to his daily problems by mirroring in the worlds created by his mind.

5. Fable–is a story intended to teach a lesson or morals in which animals are presented as characters.

6. Myth –is an anonymous, traditional story that explains a belief, a custom, or a mysterious natural phenomenon. -comes from the Greek word muthos, which simply means “story”. -were created out of human need to make sense of the universe and explain how the world and its human inhabitants came to be.

7. Legends –is a story coming down from the past and narrates the origin of a place, thing or object.

8. Folktales –is a story that is created by the “folk”—the common people—and passed along orally from generation to generation. -include legends, fables, tall tales, fairy tales, fairy tales, and ghost stories. -are entertaining stories about ordinary people who survive by luck, by using their wits, and by relying on their own natural goodness.

* Nonfiction –prose writing that narrates real events....
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