Classification of fruits
1. Berries – usually succulent fruit and very juicy. The availability of berries is between May and August. But grapes are berries that can be found year round. Some foods classified as berries do not fit the botanical definitions like strawberries and raspberries but are berries. There are fruits that are true berries but are not classified into other categories e.g. bananas and grapes. Berries grow in bunches in bushes and on vines. They are small and juicy. Examples of berries are grapes, strawberries, black berries, raspberries, gooseberries, blue berries. 2. Citrus – these are fleshy fruits and are in segments with seeds and contain citrus acid. Examples are grapefruit, clementine (orange and tangerine mix), kumquats, tangerine, orange, mangerine, ugli (orange and grapefruit cross), lemon lime, (civil), bitter orange. Characterized by a thick rine, most of which is a bitter white pit (Alfredo). The exterior layer of the skin is known as zest. The flesh of citrus is segmented and juicy. These fruits are acidic with a strong aroma. Their flavours vary from bitter to tart to sweet. It is grown in all climates but it is best grown in tropical and sub-tropical climates. 3. Drupes – they have a hard stone like seed. They have fleshy yellow skin. Examples are apricots, peaches, avocado, nectarine, West Indian cherries and plumes. They are very rich in flavor. Mango is in this group. 4. Melons – they are very fleshy, succulent and juicy. They give off a distinct odor when they are ripe. E.g. watermelon which are of three types (Christmas melon (inside yellow not pink), red seeders, gold), black seed, musk melon, cantaloupe, honey dew (golden and green) and casaba. 5. Pomes: these are fruits with thin skin with firm flesh surrounding a central core with small seeds called pips or carpels. They are not recommended for salads due to rapid enzymatic browning. Examples are apples, pear 6. Tropical fruits – pineapple, banana, jackfruit (kowa), passion fruit, mangoes, pomegranate, kashew fruit, mami, tamerind, stinking toe, guava, date, kiwi, papaya, plaintain. Pineapples contain an enzyme called bromilin which is an enzyme that do not allow it to set if used to make gelatin. Papaya contains an enzyme called papain which breaks down protein and is excellent to tenderize meat. Green papaya does not gelatinize just like pineapples. Examples are starfruit (carambola botanical name) five figure fruit, prickly pears, pomegranate, rhubarb, figs, grapes Nutritive value of fruits
They are low in energy content. 90% water. They contain very little carbohydrates. Most of the carbs are in the form of sucrose. The rest of the carbohydrates are in the form of cellulose. Fruits are usually low in fat with the exception of olives, avocado and. Fruits are rich in vitamins. Most fruits are high in carotene (vitamin A) particularly yellow fruits like papaya, mangoes, peaches and apricots. Iron occurs in some fruits but it is difficult to absorb by the body. Calcium occurs in most fruits. The B vitamins occur in most fruits but in low amounts. Most fruits are low in protein. Fruits contain water and dietary fiber. Vitamin C can be found in most fruits especially citrus fruits and guava.
Nutritive value of vegetable
a. Carbohydrates – energy value from carbohydrates are low because of high proportion water. b. Protein – content is low except for certain varieties like peas and beans. c. Vitamin B group – found in green peppers; broccoli; spinach and mushrooms. d. Vitamin C – present in green peppers, broccoli, water crest, cabbage, cauliflower, celery, lettuce, tomatoes and cucumbers. e. Beta carotene – found in most vegetables with the exception of turnips and beet roots. Dark green leafy vegetables, carrots, sweet potatoes, pumpkin, tomatoes and sweet corn are all good sources. f. Calcium occurs in all vegetables but especially in broccoli, spinach and water crest. g....
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