Early Management Theories
Early Theories of Organizations emerged mainly for military and Catholic Church. The metaphor of the machine was dominant, where organizations are viewed as machines. Therefore, the organizational application was, since workers behave predictably (as machines do rarely deviate from the norm), management knows what to expect, and workers operating outside expectations are replaced.
Classical Management Theories
There are three well-established theories of classical management: Taylor's Theory of Scientific Management, Fayol's Administrative Theory, Weber's Theory of Bureaucracy. Although these schools, or theories, developed historical sequence, later ideas have not replaced earlier ones. Instead, each new school has tended to complement or coexist with previous ones.
Taylor's Theory of Scientific Management, U.S.A
Frederick Taylor (1856-1915) "The Father of Scientific Management". Scientific Management theory arose from the need to increase productivity in the U.S.A. especially, where skilled labor was in short supply at the beginning of the twentieth century. The only way to expand productivity was to raise the efficiency of workers.
Taylor devised four principles for scientific management theory, which were: 1. The development of a true science of management,
2. The scientific selection and training of workers,
3. Proper remuneration for fast and high-quality work
4. Equal division of work and responsibility between worker and manager
Limitations of The Theory of Scientific Management:
Although it maximized efficiency and productivity but its main limitation was ignoring human aspects of employment. This is manifested in the following: Some workers and unions opposed this theory because they feared that working harder or faster would exhaust whatever work was available, causing layoffs. Objection to the "speed up" conditions that placed undue pressures on employees to perform at faster levels, some managers exploited both workers and customers. Reducing worker's role to a rigid adherence to compulsory methods and procedures. The increased fragmentation of work due to its emphasis on divisional labor . Economically based approach to the motivation of employees . It put planning and control of workplace activities only in the hands of managers. No real bargaining about wage rates ( jobs were measured and rated scientifically').
Fayol's Administrative Theory
Henri Fayol (1841-1925)
Henri Fayol is considered the founder of the classical management school because he was the first to systematize it. Fayol was like Taylor in his faith in scientific methods. However, Taylor was basically concerned with organizational functions, while Fayol was interested in the total organization and focused on management. Fayol insisted that management was a skill that could be taught once its underlying 14 principles were understood. To him, Managerial Objectives are : Planning, Organizing, Command, Coordination, and Control, and his tools for accomplishing these objectives were the following 14 principles.
Fourteen Principles of Management
Division of work - limited set of tasks
Authority and Responsibility - right to give orders
Discipline - agreements and sanctions
Unity of Command - only one supervisor
Unity of Direction - one manager per set of activities
Subordination of Individual Interest to General Interest Remuneration of Personnel - fair price for services
Centralization - reduce importance of subordinate's role Scalar Chain - Fayol's bridge
Order - effective and efficient operations
Equity - kindliness and justice
Stability of Tenure of Personnel - sufficient time for familiarity Initiative - managers should rely on workers' initiative Esprit de corps - "union is strength" "loyal members"
Fayol was the first to give a definition of...