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Classical empires

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Early Civilizations Comparrison Essay

Mesopotamia, originating around 7000 BCE near the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, and the Indus Valley (Harappan), originating roughly around 2000 BCE in the Indus River Valley, shared some political and cultural techniques, but also had many of their own. The Indus Valley was able to form more stable grounds and a strong government, while Mesopotamia struggled to do the same due to constant invasions. The political values of the two regions varied, and although Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley relied heavily on each other for long-distance trade at first, the Indus Valley was soon able to branch off on their own. They formed a stable and central government with multiple leaders, never having one all-powerful leader. On the other hand, Mesopotamia was more unorganized and slowly developed their theocracy into a monarchy. Both regions were broken into city-states and traded among them, but Mesopotamia had 12 specific and more separate/independate states. The cities of Indus Valley were surrounded with walls as well as natural barriers, resulting in very few invasions while Mesopotamia was nearly the opposite, having weak cities that were easily invaded and conquered. Both the Indus Valley and Mesopotamia used pictographic forms of writing, the mesopotamians wrote through cuneiform while the Indus Valley's language was never able to be translated. Also, the two regions were polytheistic, with different limitations. People of the Indus Valley followed more of a Hindu culture, valuing peace and starting certain Indian civilizations. The people of Mesopotamia believed the gods were immortal and controlled the forces of nature, with humans being servants to them. The Indus Valley region was able to form a more complete society because they had the entire city extremely complex and planned out, while wars were constant in the Mesopotamia region leading to a pessimistic and unorganized lifestyle.