August 8, 2010
Professor Stefanie Krasner
Classical Conditioning Paper
“In general, it is through classical conditioning that we learn which environmental objects are conducive to survival and which are not, and it is through instrumental or operant conditioning that we learn how to acquire or avoid desirable and undesirable objects. (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009, p. 7)”. Classical conditioning is something that everyone has in their lives however if they realize it or not is in question. Theory of Classical Conditioning
The theory of classical conditioning was revealed by Ivan Pavlov a Russian psychologist. Classical conditioning is an education development that takes place throughout relations among an ecological stimulus and a naturally occurring stimulus. There are five basic principles of the classical conditioning process which are; the unconditioned stimulus, the unconditioned response, the conditioned stimulus, and the conditioned response. “In Pavlov’s work, for example, a reinforcer is defined as any unconditioned stimulus, that is, any stimulus that elicits a natural and automatic reaction from an organism (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009, p. 2)”. Example – When a person steps into a restaurant and they smell all of the aromas and the get a hint of something that is their favorite they tend to become hungrier then before they stepped into that restaurant. When they smell the food and the food makes them hungry the smell of their favorite food is the unconditioned stimulus. The unconditioned response is the example of a person’s respondent actions that are extracted by the “unconditioned response”. “Examples of respondent behavior include all reflexes, such as jerking one’s hand when jabbed with a pin, the constriction of the pupil of the eye when it is exposed to bright light, and salivation in the presence of food. Because operant behavior is not initially correlated with known stimuli, it seems to appear spontaneously (Olson & Hergenhahn, 2009, p. 75)”.Example – When a person claps in front of someone’s face they tend to jerk back and blink their eyes, or when a person puts some food in their mouth and it has a horrible taste to it the first response is to spit it out and get the bad tasting food out of their mouth. The conditioned stimulus is subsequently impartial stimulus that ultimately leads to triggering the “conditioned response”. Example – When a person walks into their home and smells their favorite food cooking and they begin to get really hungry. The unconditioned stimulus is the food that is cooking and the unconditioned response is that individual getting hungry. Scenario
The scenario that I will be writing about will be: “How to toilet-train your cat”. Marie; a cat owner has been dealing with cleaning out the cats litter box twice a day for two years now. Marie named the cat Luna and Luna has been using the litter box to the point where Marie has to clean it twice a day. Marie has been going through resources to keep the litter box clean as well as filled up so that the cat will use the litter box and not go to the bathroom on her rug. Marie has finally gotten tired of having Luna use the litter box and is now interested in training Luna how to use the toilet as a replacement for the litter box. She will have to use litter at first to get Luna situated into using the toilet as the litter box. Description of scenario.
1. The first step in training the cat to use the toilet is to remember to leave the lid up and the seat down. And if you have any guests staying at the house make sure they remember to do this as well and make sure they leave the bathroom door open. 2. Move the litter box that is currently being used into the bathroom right next to the toilet that you are training them to use. Just make sure...