Classical Conditioning

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Classical Conditioning
Over the last 100 years classical conditioning evolved from a simple transfer of one stimuli to another to more complex studies of conditioning. Researchers still use classical conditioning today as a method used to study associative learning (Terry, 2009). Classical conditioning has several levels: Behaviorally - is learning of a new response, cognitively - is to gain knowledge between the stimuli’s relationships, and neutrally - is the synaptic changes that motivate training. Four basic phenomena of conditioning are acquisition, extinction, generalization, and discrimination. Classical conditioning is important to the learning process that will come to light in this paper. Concept of Classical Conditioning/Factors affecting Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning was first studied by Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov. Classical conditioning is the “basic learning process that involves repeatedly pairing a neutral stimulus with a response-producing stimulus until the same response is elicited from the neutral stimulus” (Hockenbury & Hockenbury, 2006, p. 192). Classical conditioning is a four-step learning procedure involving reflexes: 1. Unconditioned Stimulus (US) - a stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without any prior conditioning (no learning needed for the response to occur). 2. Unconditioned Response (UR) - an unlearned reaction/response to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without prior conditioning. 3. Conditioned Stimulus (CS) - a previously neutral stimulus that has, through conditioning, acquired the capacity to evoke a conditioned response. 4. Conditioned Response (CR) - a learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs because of prior conditioning (1998-2011). Classical conditioning was portrayed by stereotypes as a simple form of reflex learning, which is untrue because classical conditioning learning is a flexible and adaptive form of associative learning. “The learning that occurs in...
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