Classical Approaches to Management

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* Classical approaches to management include:
* Scientific management
* Administrative principles
* Bureaucratic organization

* Scientific management (Frederick Taylor)
* Develop rules of motion, standardized work implements, and proper working conditions for every job. * Carefully select workers with the right abilities for the job. * Carefully train workers and provide proper incentives. * Support workers by carefully planning their work and removing obstacles.

* Scientific management (the Gilbreths)
* Motion study
* Science of reducing a job or task to its basic physical motions. * Eliminating wasted motions improves performance.

* Administrative principles (Henri Fayol) — rules of management: * Foresight — to complete a plan of action for the future. * Organization — to provide and mobilize resources to implement the plan. * Command — to lead, select, and evaluate workers to get the best work toward the plan. * Coordination — to fit diverse efforts together and ensure information is shared and problems solved. * Control — to make sure things happen according to plan and to take necessary corrective action.

* Administrative principles (Henri Fayol) — key principles of management: * Scalar chain — there should be a clear and unbroken line of communication from the top to the bottom of the organization. * Unity of command — each person should receive orders from only one boss. * Unity of direction — one person should be in charge of all activities with the same performance objective.

* Administrative principles (Mary Parker Follett)
* Groups and human cooperation:
* Groups are mechanisms through which individuals can combine their talents for a greater good. * Organizations are cooperating “communities” of managers and workers. * Manager’s job is to help people in the organization cooperate and achieve an integration of interests.

* Administrative principles (Mary Parker Follett)
* Forward-looking management insights:
* Making every employee an owner creates a sense of collective responsibility (precursor of employee ownership, profit sharing, and gain-sharing) * Business problems involve a variety of inter-related factors (precursor of systems thinking) * Private profits relative to public good (precursor of managerial ethics and social responsibility)

* Bureaucratic organization (Max Weber)
* Bureaucracy
* An ideal, intentionally rational, and very efficient form of organization. * Based on principles of logic, order, and legitimate authority.

* Characteristics of bureaucratic organizations:
* Clear division of labor
* Clear hierarchy of authority
* Formal rules and procedures
* Impersonality
* Careers based on merit

* Possible disadvantages of bureaucracy:
* Excessive paperwork or “red tape”
* Slowness in handling problems
* Rigidity in the face of shifting needs
* Resistance to change
* Employee apathy

* Human resource approaches include:
* Hawthorne studies
* Maslow’s theory of human needs
* McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
* Argyris’s theory of adult personality

* Hawthorne studies
* Initial study examined how economic incentives and physical conditions affected worker output. * No consistent relationship found.
* “Psychological factors” influenced results.

* Hawthorne studies (cont.)
* Relay assembly test-room studies
* Manipulated physical work conditions to assess impact on output. * Designed to minimize the “psychological factors” of previous experiment. * Factors that accounted for increased productivity: * Group atmosphere

* Participative supervision...
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