Neutral Stimulus (NS): before conditioning doesn’t naturally elicit response of interest . Unconditioned Stimulus (UCS): elicits UCR without previous conditioning Unconditioned Response (UCR): unlearned reaction to UCS occurring without prior conditioning Conditioned Stimulus (CS): previously NS that, through repeated pairings with UCS, now causes a CR Conditioned Response (CR): learned reaction to a CS occurring because of previous repeated pairings with an UCS
Operant Conditioning: learning in which voluntary responses are controlled by their consequences Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles:
* Reinforcement: strengthening a response
Primary Reinforcers: normally satisfy an unlearned biological need (e.g., food) Secondary Reinforcers: learned value (e.g., money, praise)
Positive Reinforcement: adding (or presenting) a stimulus, which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur (e.g., praise) Negative Reinforcement: taking away (or removing) a stimulus, which strengthens a response and makes it more likely to recur (e.g., headache removed after taking an aspirin) * Shaping: reinforcement is delivered after successive approximations of the desired response * Punishment: weakening a response
Positive Punishment: adding (or presenting) a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur (e.g., shouting) Negative Punishment: taking away (or removing) a stimulus that weakens a response and makes it less likely to recur (e.g., restriction)
Operant Conditioning’s Basic Principles: Four Partial Schedules of Reinforcement 1. Fixed Ratio (FR): reinforcement occurs after a predetermined set of responses; the ratio (number or amount) is fixed 2.Variable Ratio (VR): reinforcement occurs unpredictably; the...