Cj 474

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2-18-10

Aggressive Enforcement
-It reduces’ residents’ fear
-Dealing with low-level offenders leads to serious offenders -Quality of life is improved by not having to deal with “street people” -Cooperation/assistance in community increase when serious crime erupts -Encourages citizens to uphold neighborhood standards for behavior in public spaces

Against Aggressive Enforcement
-Police resources should be focused on serious crime
-The link between disorder, fear, and crime is uncertain
-Aggressive policing against those using public spaces in attacking the poor, not helping them -Civil liberties of the poor are infringed when the police aggressively enforce public order offenses

Community Policing (Four Components)
-Decentralizing decision making to include residents
-Making police more accountable to the public
-Changing the focus of patrol activities to non-emergency services -Community-based crime prevention

Foot Patrol Experiments
-Did not reduce crime
-Did not result in less fear of crime
-Gave officers greater satisfaction
-Fewer arrests and complaints
-Fewer resisting arrests
-Similar productivity

Investigations
-Preliminary investigations are:
Generally conducted by patrol officers (details about the crime, witnesses and all other pertinent factors) A major factor in crime solving
-Follow-up Investigations are:
Conducted by detectives
-TV over-dramatizes this aspect of policing
-Citizen cooperation is important
-Many times the offender is known, or known of and the detectives simply locate him or her Four Investigative Functions
-Suspect identified & detective gathers evidence
-No suspect identified & detective seeks his or her identity -Maintaining surveillance over known suspect before a crime is committed -No suspect, no crime but a hunch something may be up & therefore needs watching (The French Connection) How Effective Are Investigations?

-Much time is spent on nonproductive work (how not to make a light bulb) -Chances of making an arrest are most closely linked to when it was reported
-33% chance if reported in progress
-10% chance is reported 1 minute later
-5% if more than 15 minutes elapse before reporting the crime

CHAPTER 7
Use of Force
-We guess about 200 people are killed by the people each year -Police are permitted to use force, but only to a point
-Therefore, force exists on a continuum
-Abuse of force is more force than is necessary to achieve legitimate ends Controlling/Limiting The Use of Force
-Narrow discretion
-Better means of getting assistance
-Better protective equipment
-Less lethal weapons
-Identification of and counseling for stress

Controlling Use of Deadly Force
-Tennessee v. Garner
-Put an end to any local police policy that allowed officers to shoot unarmed or non-dangerous offenders if they resisted or attempted to flee -Graham v. Conner
-Force is excessive when, considering all the circumstances known to the officer at the time he or she acted, the force used was unreasonable Forms of Police Misconduct
-How does this happen?
-Three General Categories of Misconduct:
-Abuse of force
-Discrimination
-Corruption
What is Abuse of Force?
-Abusive language
-Unnecessary use of force or coercion
-Threats
-Harassment
What is Discrimination?
-Treating people differently because of what they are, who they are or our perception of either:
-Race
-Sex
-Age
-Sexual Preference
-Position

What is Corruption?
-Dishonest or fraudulent conduct by those in power- usually involving bribery
-Can be isolated or pervasive
Changing Police Corruption
-Change in department tolerances
-More willingness to take cases to the courts
-More active security within government
-Greater access to police practices for the public
-Changing what the public will accept from the police
Police Investigating Police: Internal Affairs Units
-Most police depts. Have some means of investigating alleged...
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