1. Ancient Britons and their religion.
The Druids were polytheistic, they believed in many gods. Britain’s were governed by doesn’t of preests, called Druids, who had great power over them. Stonehenge was the temple of the Druids. They often declared that a god was angry and to get the god’s pardon the people had to offer us sacrifices of human beings. The Druids put men into huge baskets and burned them in the presence of the people. During a feast a minstrel usually sang songs about brave deeds of famous warriors. After his listeners began to boast of their own brave deeds. And when they had drunk too much, they began quarreling and fighting, and usually some men were killed. 2. The Romans and Christianity in Britain
In the year 55 BC the great Roman general Julius Caesar suited (приплыл) to Britain with about 12000 soldiers. They won the battle, but did not long and soon departed. In following year Julius Caesar come to Britain again. The time, after fighting the Britons on the share, the Romans marched north-west where London stands today. The Romans were very practical, and the first thing they did in Britain was to make and fortify the ports where they landed their soldiers and supplies (запасы). During this time there were long periods of peace, and Britain became a civilized villages and good roads. Many of them are in use today. Christianity first penetrated to Britain in the 3th century. It was brought there from Rome by Christian refugees. In the year 306, the Roman Emperor Constantine the Great stopped the prosecution of the Christians and became a Christian himself. Christianity was made the national faith in Britain too and it was called Catholic Church. After the invasion of the Anglo-Saxons most of the British Christians were killed. At the end of the 6th century Christian monks began coming from Rome again. 3. Alfred the Great.
Alfred, the grandson of Egbert, became king in the year 871, when England’s danger was greatest. The Danes,who had settled on the eastern shores of Britain, continued robbing (грабить) and killing the people of England and occupying more and more land. Alfred gathered a big army and gave the Danes great battle at Malden in 891. The Danes were defeated in this battle. He had to give the Danes the greater portion of England. The Kingdom that was left in Alfred’s possession was Wessex. During time Alfred built the first English navy. Alfred is the only king of England who got the name « the Great». And he was really a great king. He was well educated for his time. He is famous not only for having built the first navy, but also for having tried to enlighten, his people. He translated the church history, and parts of the Bible from Latin into Anglo – Saxon. 4. Feudalism and Norman Conquest in Britain.
In France there was a young boy named William, who was the son of the Duke of Normandy. This was the boy who in the year 1066 came and conquered England. William was 24 years old he came to England to visit his relative. When William saw what a green and pleasant country England was, he wanted very much to be its king. King Edward the Confessor liked his young nephew and promised him the crown. Most Saxon nobles did not want a French king, and after Edward the Confessor’s death they proclaimed Harold king of England. William gathered a great army. There was a great battle at Hastings on October 14, 1066. William marched his army to London. He was met by the Saxon bishops and nobles, so they asked him to be the king of England. William the Conqueror took lands from Saxon nobles and gave them to his norman barons who became new masters of the land. There were many people in England who did not want to be ruled by a Norman king, and in many parts of the country there were rebellions. 5. Britain in the 14th century
By the 14th century the process of centralization of the king’s power was completing. The old contradictions between...