...side of the battle, while the other side is uncivilized and barbaric. However, defining civilization based on specific moral values is too subjective and arbitrary. Civilization is a concept of man-made societal standards in the most refined culture; man-made because civilization is defined by wide cultural and socioeconomic differences between peoples/nations. Therefore, a civilized person abides by societal standards.
Being a civilized individual is relative to the society or nation to which the individual belongs. In Brave New World by Aldous Huxley, Linda is a character who lives in the developed, technologically advanced World State until she becomes trapped on a Savage Reservation. Discussing her experience first adjusting to the new society she recounts; “How it used to upset me, all that dirt, and nothing being aseptic. I had an awful cut on my head when they first brought me here. You can’t imagine what they used to put on it. Filth, just filth. ’Civilization is Sterilization,’ I used to say to them” (Huxley 81). In this case, Linda is civilized because she is adhering to the societal norms she was conditioned to accept; “civilization is sterilization’ is a mantra she was taught in her sleep as a child so the World States’ methods of ingraining societal standards were especially effective. Between the two cultures, the World State is more civilized because degree of civilization...
..."The great divisions among humankind and the dominating source of conflict will be cultural," hypothesizes Samuel P. Huntington, author of "The Clash of Civilizations?" In cautious tones, he warns all Westerners of the impending cultural crisis that is rising to threaten the existence of enlightened Western thought and civilization. He forecasts major global cultures rolling up their sleeves to duke it out in a final battle of human identity, ignoring the real possibility of malleable and intertwining cultures that might actually emerge in the end, as Edward Said suggests.
Author of Orientalism and Culture and Imperialism, Said studies Western imperialist culture and its passive legitimation through classic literature and a hawkish media. He concerns himself, also, with the power structures that accompany an imperialist culture. Both scholars agree that cultural heritage plays an important role in deciding a government’s role in society. As Huntington perceives, "Differences in culture and religion create differences over policy issues, ranging from human rights to immigration to trade and commerce to the environment."
But Edward Said would beg to differ with Huntington’s thesis. Though not in direct response to Huntington’s essay, Said challenges any notion of The West vs. The Rest, articulating the superficiality of nationalistic and socio-cultural differences. An advocate of liberal muli-culturalism, Said would emphasize the inevitability...
...least for the purpose of economics ,is in forcing the and subdivision of any such task into its components parts.(Galbraith,1974,p.31)
Technology is one of the most important factor in human life. It would be very difficult life without all these facilities. It becomes part of human lives. It has played very important role in all aspect of life and one of them is civilization. Technology is one of the driving forces behind civilization. It was technology that help to advance agricultural and grow houses. People were living in caves and using animals skins to protect themselves from weather. There was no proper irrigation system and agricultural was not developed.
The earliest civilization did not arise in fertile rain watered lands in the temperature zone. Instead ,they began in dry or desert regions where water came from a river, a lake ,or a swamp. Farmers who grew corps on the very banks of the river or the shores of the lake or swamp were always at the mercy of devastating floods or droughts. when they succeeded in controlling water, however ,the results were spectacular. The place where the first civilization arose was Iraq, a land the Greeks called Mesopotamia, the “land between the rivers” Tigris and Euphrates .The valley has good alluvial soil but is difficult but if difficult to farm. It is very hot and dry in the summer and cold and dry in the winter. Although little rain reached the valley, in...
...Culture and Civilization
According to anthropologists of 19th century, Culture is earlier and Civilization is later. Everything created by man is culture, civilization is an advanced state of cultural development. Culture developed in three stages:
Savagery >> Barbarianism >> Civilization
(Acts of cruel and violent behavior)
(Extremely cruel and unpleasant behavior)
Alfred Louis Kroeber said Culture is super organic, he has given three forms of culture namely Social Culture (Status and Role), Value Culture (Philosophy, Morals) and Reality Culture (Science and Technology, etc). According to Kroeber civilization is a part of reality culture. Robert Redfield said culture is a totality of traditions and civilization is a totality of great and little traditions.
Culture: The collective appearance of customs, faith, art, language, way of thinking and way of living of a particular group of people. And civilization is the developed part, when different cultures meet.
Difference between Culture and Civilization, Sociologists View
Culture | Civilization |
Culture includes religion, art philosophy, literature, music, dance, etc. which brings satisfaction and pleasure to many. It is the expression of final aspects of life. | Civilization includes all those things by means of which some other objective is attained. Type...
...expansion. It is nearly impossible to avoid the question of whether transnationalism is more important in world politics than ever before. Transnational relationships do play an increasing role, and is higher than at any point since World War I. Transnationalism is the "engine of the merging social structure of the world." (Clarke 151)
Samuel P. Huntington was the most important foreign policy intellectual in the United States during the 1990's. Huntington saw that despite the economic and cultural globalization, forceful resistance remained. Divisions among people tend to be predominantly cultural. Principal conflicts of global politics occur between nations and groups of different civilizations. According to Huntington, the clash of civilizations will dominate global politics, where civilizations will inevitably clashmainly due to cultural differences. I tend to disagree with Huntington due to the following characteristics of transnationalism. First, the role and function of the nation-state in international politics has changed dramatically over the years. New groups have emerged, such as terrorist groups, multinational corporations or hijackers. Even non-military and non-security issues have emergedpopulation, dependency of Third World countries on the developed, pollution and depletion of certain natural resources.
Huntington also failed to acknowledge the increase in interdependence adequately. Recently, there has been...
...Concept of Civilization
What is civilization? Civilization is a term we have frequently used as a milestone for our existence on earth. However, all of us have our own views and definitions on the term “civilization”. In most modern researches of civilization, it is common for the researchers to gravitate to tangible and measurable data such as technological advances, economic status, as well as quality of life in order to determine the “progress” of a civilization. Yet, a famed Egyptologist and author of the “Serpent in the Sky: The High Wisdom of Ancient Egypt”, John Anthony West, has a unique view on human civilization. In his opinion, civilization is a society where men care more about the quality of the inner life rather than their conditions in daily life (as cited in Bartlett, n.d.). This means than men would focus more on the inner being and happiness, as well as the spiritual aspects in their life.
As corresponds to West’s opinion, the definition of civilization can be related to Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. This theory states that people are motivated to achieve particular needs such as physiological needs, safety needs, social needs, esteem needs, and finally self-actualization needs at the highest level of the hierarchy in their life (Mcleod, 2014). They will move up to seek for the next higher level of needs after satisfying...
...The Importance of Civilization
What would happen if there was no civilization on earth? In William Golding’s novel, Lord of the Flies, the boys face many forces which cripple their civilization and prevent it from succeeding. Through fear; the conflict of power; and the pressure of one's responsibilities, a society will crumble.7 Fear can get people to become unhinged and not willing to co-operate.
Fear makes people paranoid and unable to think properly in tough solutions. The biggest fear on the island is the beast. A little boy expresses his fear at a meeting, which another boy explains, “He still says he saw the beastie. It came and went away again an' came back and wanted to eat him-" (Golding 36). Before the boys heard about the beast, they were all acting civilized, but not soon after they begin to worry. A group stays civilized until a traumatic experience happens, then individuals become barbaric. Ralph fears Jack’s determination to overpower him will never end. When they first meet, Jack declares, "I ought to be chief…because I'm chapter chorister and head boy. I can sing C sharp" (Golding 22). Ralph always competes to have the greater ideas on the island in fear that the little ones will take Jack's side. The thought of dying overshadows any decisions made on the island. Ralph decides to build a fire because he knows, "…if a ship comes near the island they may not notice us. So we must make smoke on top of the...
...Civilization is a term used in many different ways. It can
be defined as; people who eat the same kind of foods,
People who live together, people who speak the same
language, and so on. Yet each way that it is defined relates
towards the same topic; Humans and their existence on the
planet. Civilization is known greatly as a group of humans or
animals that live generally together and practice the same
Civilization, according to some historians, first came into
play in the year 3000 BCE. These historians look at
civilization as people who have the same dietary needs and
habits, who practice these habits regularly in order to
survive. A couple of years before 3000 BCE, the world
went through what historians call the Agricultural revolution.
They feel that because of this revolution, groups of people
started to come together to practice their farming ways.
Because of all the new food supplies that came about
through the agricultural revolution, the population started to
grow into little villages, which eventually turned into city
states. This caused people to look further beyond their little
villages in search of more land to hold their growing
populations. This caused groups of people to break off and
form their own little towns or civilizations. After a while the
people learned that by being in different places their farming...