CIVIL WAR AND ETHNIC CLEANSING
* CIVIL WAR
* A conflict between organized groups within the country or between two countries created from a formerly united nation state. * A violent conflict within a country fought by organized groups that aim to take power at the center or in a region, or to change government policies. (James Fearon, "Iraq's Civil War" in Foreign Affairs, March/April 2007.) * A high-intensity conflict, often involving regular armed forces, that is sustained, organized and large-scale. * May result in large numbers of casualties and the consumption of significant resources. (Ann Hironaka, Neverending Wars: The International Community, Weak States, and the Perpetuation of Civil War, Harvard University Press: Cambridge, Mass., 2005) * The aim of one side may be to take control of the country or a region, to achieve independence for a region, or to change government policies. (James Fearon, "Iraq's Civil War" in Foreign Affairs, March/April 2007.)
1. Greed versus Grievance
According to scholars Paul Collier and Anke Hoeffler, civil wars are attracted by two opposing theories, Greed versus Grievance. (Greed and Grievance) What is Greed vs Grievance?
It refers to the two baseline arguments put forward by scholars of armed conflict on the causes of civil war, though the argument has been extended to other forms of war. "Greed" is shorthand for the argument that combatants in armed conflicts are motivated by a desire to better their situation, and perform an informal cost-benefit analysis in examining if the rewards of joining a rebellion are greater than not joining. "Grievance" stands for the argument that people rebel over issues of identity, e.g. ethnicity, religion, social class, etc., rather than over economics. In practice, even proponents of strong versions of these arguments admit that the opposing argument has some influence in the development of a...