Civil Rights

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The Civil Rights Movement was by far, the most significant reform movement in history. What is the meaning of citizenship? Citizenship is the character of an individual viewed as a member of society; behavior in terms of the duties, obligations, and functions of a citizen. But African Americans were on a “second” level of society. Segregation, on a social level is the practice or policy of creating separate facilities within the same society for the use of a minority group, and had become deeply rooted into African American live because of the laws, custom, and the terror roused in them. African Americans started standing up for themselves by challenging the segregation system. The Montgomery bus boycott was the first step; sparked by the arrest of Rosa Parks on 1 December 1955, the Montgomery bus boycott was a 13-month mass protest that ended with the U.S. Supreme Court ruling that segregation on public buses is unconstitutional. The Montgomery Improvement Association coordinated the boycott, and its president, Martin Luther King, Jr., became a prominent civil rights leader as international attention focused on Montgomery. The bus boycott demonstrated the potential for nonviolent mass protest to successfully challenge racial segregation and served as an example for other southern campaigns that followed. In Stride Toward Freedom, King’s 1958 memoir of the boycott, he declared the real meaning of the Montgomery bus boycott to be the power of a growing self-respect to animate the struggle for civil rights. On 5 June 1956, the federal district court ruled in Browder v. Gayle that bus segregation was unconstitutional, and in November 1956 the U.S. Supreme Court affirmed Browder v. Gayle and struck down laws requiring segregated seating on public buses. The court’s decision came the same day that King and the MIA were in circuit court challenging an injunction against the MIA carpools. Resolved not to end the boycott until the order to desegregate the buses actually...
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