Civ Rights Notes

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The Civil Rights Movement
While Eisenhower = concentrating on Cold War issues tension btwn blacks + other Amers = rising Origins of the Movement
Jackie Robinson: baseball player
1947 hired by Brooklyn Dodgers as first black to play major league Pres Truman
integrated armed forces (1948)
introduced civil rights legislation in Congress
1950s: in South:
segregated by law in schools + most public facilities
blacks = kept from voting by poll taxes, lit tests, grandfather clauses, + intimidation Social segregation → poorly educated
eco discrimination kept blacks poor
Changing demographics
in N, blacks who joined Democrats during New Deal → growing influence in party politics in 1950s Changing attitudes in the Cold War
Cold War = played indirect role in changing gov policies + social attitudes U.S. reputation for freedom + democracy = compete against communist ideology for hearts/minds of Africans + Asians racial segregation/discrimination stood out wrong + need correcting Desegregating the Schools

NAACP = trying to overturn Supreme Court 1896 decision (Plessy v. Ferguson) - “separate but equal” 1940s, NAACP won series of cases involving higher education Brown decision
1950s NAACP lawyers led by Thurgood Marshall = In case Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka argued segregation in public schools = unconstitutional b/c violated 14 Amendment guarantee: “equal protection of the laws” May 1954, Supreme Court overturned Plessy case, unanimous Court decision Chief Justice : Earl Warren ruled:

“separate facilities are inherently unequal” + unconstitutional segregation in schools should end w/ “all deliberate speed” Resistance in the South
States in Deep S = fight Supreme Court decision
temporary closing of public schools
Arkansas in 1956: Gov Orval Faubus used state’s National Guard → prevent 9 blacks from going to Little Rock Central HS, as ordered by fed court Pres Eisenhower intervened → ordered fed troops stand guard in Little Rock + protect black students Eisenhower = 1st pres since Reconstruction to use fed troops to protect rights of blacks Montgomery Bus Boycott

Desegregation in busses
Montgomery, Alabama, 1955: Rosa Parks = too tired to move to back of bus to “black section” → arrested for violating segregation law → sparked massive African American protest in Montgomery = blacks won’t ride city buses Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. =soon emerged as leader of nonviolent movement to win integration protest = started by Rosa Parks + Montgomery boycott → Supreme Court 1956 ruled segregation laws = unconstitutional The Eisenhower Years, 1952–1960581

Federal Laws
civil rights laws of 1957 and 1960 = 1st of such laws to be enacted since Reconstruction permanent Civil Rights Commission + gave Justice Department new powers: protect voting rights of blacks S officials still try really hard to make voting hard for blacks Nonviolent Protests

1957, MLK Jr. formed S Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) organized ministers + churches in S to back up civ rights struggle Feb 1960, college students in Greensboro, NC started sit-in movement at Woolworth’s lunch counter students = deliberately invite arrest by sitting in restricted areas Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) = formed few months later → keep movement going + organized 1960s blacks use sit-in tactic to integrate: restaurants, hotels, buildings, libraries, pools, + transportation throughout S actions of Supreme Court, Congress, Pres Eisenhower, + Montgomery bus boycott = marked turning point in civ rights movement Kennedy + President Johnson and Civil Rights

Civil Rights Acts of 1964 and 1965
Pres Johnson persuaded majority of Democrats + some Republicans in Congress to pass 1964 Civil Rights Act made segregation illegal in ALL public places (eg: including hotels + restaurants) and gave fed gov powers to enforce school desegregation also set up Equal Employment Opportunity Commission: end racial...
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