“Citric Acid Levels in Commercial & Freshly Squeezed Lemon Juice”

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  • Topic: Citric acid, Acid, PH
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  • Published : May 6, 2013
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“Citric Acid Levels in Commercial & Freshly Squeezed Lemon Juice” BY: SERENA GOVENDER Yr10

Question: To investigate the citric acid levels in commercial and freshly squeezed lemon juice Change:
Type of Lemon Juice
Why I Chose This Topic: I chose this topic because I was interested in investigating the level of citric acid in commercial and freshly squeezed lemon juice in order to compare results and suggest theories and ideas about what increases or decreases the acidity of the lemon juice and why?? (Temperature, adding chemicals/preservatives etc…)

*Reasons that might affect the acidic levels:
-Temperature
-Adding chemicals/ preservatives

-Same amount of lemon juice each
REPEAT 3X-TRAILS
Measuring:
Citric acid- Digital Ph Scale & Tapes

*5-8 types of lemon juice
-3: freshly squeezed
-3-6: commercial
Lemon Juice:
-commercial
-freshly squeezed
“Citric Acid Levels in Lemon Juice”
-FRESHLY SQUEEZED
-COMMERCIAL

Relevant Information:
* Freshly squeezed lemon juice contains about 1.44 and 1.38g/oz * Commercial lemon juice contains about 0.03 to 0.22g/oz
* Lemon contains about 5-6%
* Reasons that affect the acidity of the lemon juice:
-Temperature (boiling or freezing <storage> -decrease) -Adding chemicals/preservatives (depends on what chemicals added)-result: decrease -Adding water (decreases and dilutes the acidity)
-Depending how ripe the lemon is (riper the lemon=less sour therefore it would be higher (less acidic), lemon not ripe=sour therefore the acidic level would be lower (more acidic) -How old/time??
-If the commercial lemon juice was opened and left out
-light (not a huge decrease)
-ascorbic acid (higher content of vitamin C)
-Material the lemon juice is contained in
-Storage (room temperature, heat, freezer etc…)
-added different acidic liquids e.g. vinegar, lime etc…
* Measuring: Acidic levels –Digital pH scale + tapes
* http://www.livestrong.com/article/296959-what-are-the-benefits-of-lemon-juice-on-the-skin/ -Usefulness Other Ideas to Investigate:
* Investigating how temperature affects the acidity of the liquid/lemon juice?? * How light affects the acidity??
* By adding chemicals does it increase or decrease the acidity?? & why?? * Investigating what liquid has the highest or lowest acidity & why??-test: vinegar etc… * How to decrease the acidity of the liquid/lemon juice?? E.g. water, adding chemicals * How does lemon juice react with other chemicals??

* How does the time or how old it is affect the acidity of the liquid/lemon juice?? * Investigate the acidic levels between a lemon and a lime * Investigate the acid levels of lemons which are ripe and not

Aim: To investigate the citric acid levels in commercial and freshly squeezed lemon juice Hypothesis: The acidity in the freshly squeezed lemon juice will have a lower pH as it is more acidic than the commercial lemon juices. Equipment/Materials:

* 3 lemons
* 5 commercial lemon juices
-PLJ Lemon Juice
-Golden Crown Lemon Juice
-ReaLemon, 100% lemon Juice
-Berri Lemon Juice
-Sunshine Lemon Juice
* Digital pH Scale and Tapes
* Labels
* 8 Drinking Glasses
* Safety Glasses
Variables :
* Independent Variable : lemon juice (Commercial and Freshly Squeezed) * Dependent Variable : Citric acid levels which will be measured by a Digital pH Scale and Tapes * Controlled Variables : Same amount of lemon juice into each glass, same pH scale and tapes Method:

1) Collect Equipment
2) Set up equipment
3) Label each glass according to the type of lemon juice that is going to be poured in. Example: G1: Berri Lemon Juice etc… 4) Pour equal amount of lemon juice into each glass (about 15ml) but make sure each glass consists of different brands or types of lemon juice (commercial and freshly squeezed). 5) Place the Digital pH Scale into glass 1 and record the result. This will tell you the power/strength of...
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