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Who are the Citizens of the Philippines?

    A Filipino citizen may be considered natural-born or naturalized citizen.  Both statuses bestow upon the individual certain privileges and exclusive rights such as the rights to vote, to run for public, etc. which may be denied the foreigner.

    Art. IV, sec. 2 of the 1987 Constitution defines the NATURAL-BORN Filipino citizens as:

1.  “Those who are citizens of the Philippines at the time of the adoption of this (1987) Constitution”

2.  “those whose fathers OR mothers are citizens of the Philippines” and

3. “those born before January 7, 1973, of Filipino mothers, who elect Philippine citizenship upon reaching the age of majority.  
    Even if the child is born to an alien father and a Filipino mother, the Filipino citizenship of the mother will bestow natural-born Philippine citizenship upon the child PROVIDED his birth occurred on or after January 17, 1973 (date of ratification of the 1973 Constitution), otherwise he followed the citizenship of the alien father and acquired at best only an inchoate Philippine citizenship which he could perfect by election upon attaining majority age.  EXCEPT if he is born out of lawful wedlock, in which case, he will be considered a Filipino by virtue of his mother’s citizenship.  

    In addition, only natural-born citizens are allowed to hold constitutional offices such as the office of the President; Senators; Members of the House of Representatives; Members of the Supreme Court; and the Chairman and Commissioners of the Constitutional Commissions (Civil Service Commission, COMELEC and the Commission on Audit).

    Naturalization takes place either voluntarily by complying both the substantive and procedural requirements of the general naturalization law or by operation of law. This process may be direct or derivative.

    Under the Commonwealth Act 473, a foreigner who is not married to a Filipino but...
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