Cities in Africa, Latin America and Asia

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Engender cities or endanger them? With the exception of recent work on employment and the labour market, research on urban issues has remained somewhat short-sighted when it comes to the distinctions between men’s and women’s needs. Do you agree with this view? Discuss with reference to examples.

Rural-urban migration is a symbol that indicates the problems experience by men and women in rural areas and also the urban aspects that draw attention of rural dwellers. Most people migrate because they need to maximise their income to live better life, while others migrate because they need income that will sustain their lives. Therefore the common aspect that leads to urban migration in this context is job opportunities in urban areas. However, job opportunities in urban areas go with challenges and difficulties. The most fundamental urban challenge reveal the fact that ‘employers benefit from the maintenance of a pool of rural labour which they can draw on to meet fluctuations in demand for labour at a minimal economic and political cost’ (Brown, 1983: 369). This paper will discuss how research on urban issues has given a careful consideration when it comes to the distinctions between men’s and women’s needs. It will then provide explanation that women and men engenders cities for it growth and expansion. It will also offer some examples to support the argument and underlining problems and challenges faced by women and men in urban areas Industrialization in urban areas generates a number of employments, mostly to men, and also plays a central role in urban growth and expansion. In simple industries produce machinery to construct city building, bring people closer to the city and provide labour market. Because the living cost is high in the city, men were forced to leave their family at home and stay in places next to work place. Gulger (1989) suggest that the rural urban migration was on the basis of high unemployment rate and resulted in family separation. In other words, while men were away, women then become a head of the household. In order to gain a better understanding of the likely impact cause by family separation, it is thus necessary to examine the impact of social and economic implication. In other words, ‘the existence of households headed by single women represents a major change in the social and economic structure of rural Botswana’ (Brown, 1983: 375). For example, the significant of industrial revolution in Europe encourage a radical change engenders Africa cities and resulted to family separation (Gulger, 1989). Increasingly, as the labour demand and women empowerment has unfolded, that result to migration trend magnifies to women and children. For example, (Gulger, 1989) point out that most women and children join men in urban areas. The significant challenge women experience underlies from the fact that were marginalise and inferior. Haque (1999: 147) point out that ‘those woman that do participate in the paid labour force are usually employed in a low paid sectors of the highly gender segregated labour market to their insufficient education qualification’. On the other hand, more people flow to the city less employment opportunity will available. Pott, (1999) claim that the existence of unemployment and underemployment is a product of high number of people moving into the urban areas. In brief, rather than working as a cheap labour, the major difficulties experience by women and men is unemployment. Employment and labour market has produce mechanism of urban expansion in the previous and current century. Women and men play a central role in engenders cities mostly in the developing world. Therefore Cities acquired much support from the contribution of men and women in force labour market (Pott, 1999). However the distinctions between genders in the labour market had form and engender cities. For example, although men were employed as a cheap labour,...
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