CISCO, the focus of this paper is founded by a small group of computer scientist from Stanford University in 1984 is a leading information technology company. CISCO specializes in supplying hardware, software and services to enable networking for the Internet and transform the way people connect, communicate and collaborate. CISCO in this modern era had transformed its hardware business from switches to handheld camcorders etc and putting focus in providing services to help install and manage its hardware and software. CISCO also identifies itself as a software innovator that provides dominating operating systems – this allows the company to maintain its competitive lead against competition. Today, CISCO is represented by 5 business groups namely – 1) Network Systems; 2) Collaborative, Voice and Video; 3) Security; 4) Data Center; 5) Mobility/Wireless. As CISCO continues to transform itself to cope with market expectations and attempts to be the best company of the world, the constant challenge the firm faces is how it continue to keep its employees motivated and delivering at their best. (CISCO 2009) A clear explanation on the Maslow’s and Herzberg’s theories are put together to provide understanding, comparing and contrasting them provides clues on how the 2 theories were similar yet delivered in different ways due to the environmental effects and society influence at that point in time. Further to explaining the concepts, evidence are presented on how CISCO is applying the Maslow’s and Herzberg’s theories with recommendations on further possible improvement to keep their employees at their best. ANALYSIS
In management, motivation is an internal force thus no definite way of measuring (Bartol et al. 2008, p. 445). However motivation shapes behaviour and provides a way to infer motivation and identify needs associated to motivating an employee. In the history of management, Abraham Maslow (1954) developed a motivation theory called hierarchy of needs which consist of 5 levels. And was popular in the 1960s where the main need of the society is focusing on getting food, water, shelter – such needs are physiological in Maslow’s theory. After the physiological needs are satisfied, safety and security needs will be addressed, and such needs can be in the form of job security or benefits. Once the assurance of the safety and security needs are met, next on the list would be the social needs, where relationships are formed to increase self confidence and gaining acceptance by others. With the support by relationships, esteem needs becomes apparent, where perception on value and appreciation for the work contributed is important to the individual. The highest level would be self-actualisation needs – this refers to a stage where individual might had achieved their full potential and making significant impact in the environment. Maslow suggested the 5 needs are in the following hierarchy level: 1) Self-actualisation needs (highest level)
2) Esteem needs;
3) Social needs;
4) Safety and Security needs;
5) Physiological needs (lowest level)
The realisation of needs often starts from Physiological needs up towards Self-actualisation needs. (Bartol et al. 2008, p. 446) The top 2 needs in the hierarchy are also termed as “higher-order needs” and the bottom three “lower-order needs” (Kaliprasad 2006). With this theory in mind, the challenge for managers is to originate and initiate work related ways to fulfil hierarchy needs. Frederick Herzberg (1966) developed a two-factor theory building on Maslow’s work. In this theory, Herzberg spoke with 200 accountants and engineers and had them describe what they felt very good about their job and other where they felt very bad about them. And a pattern was evident; factors that made individuals satisfied with their job are called motivators whereas those that made them unsatisfied are hygiene factors. This theory argues that hygiene factors assist in preventing or reducing...