Circulatory System

Topics: Heart, Blood, Cardiovascular system Pages: 22 (4726 words) Published: February 3, 2012
Circulatory system
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This article is about the organ system. For the band, see Circulatory System. For transport in plants, see Vascular tissue. Circulatory system|
The human circulatory system. Red indicates oxygenated blood, blue indicates deoxygenated.| Latin| systema cardiovasculare|
The circulatory system is an organ system that passes nutrients (such as amino acids, electrolytes and lymph), gases, hormones, blood cells, etc. to and from cells in the body to help fight diseases and help stabilize body temperature and pH to maintain homeostasis. This system may be seen strictly as a blood distribution network, but some consider the circulatory system as composed of the cardiovascular system, which distributes blood,[1] and the lymphatic system,[2] which distributes lymph. While humans, as well as other vertebrates, have a closed cardiovascular system (meaning that the blood never leaves the network of arteries, veins and capillaries), some invertebrate groups have an open cardiovascular system. The most primitive animal phyla lack circulatory systems. The lymphatic system, on the other hand, is an open system. Two types of fluids move through the circulatory system: blood and lymph. The blood, heart, and blood vessels form the cardiovascular system. The lymph, lymph nodes, and lymph vessels form the lymphatic system. The cardiovascular system and the lymphatic system collectively make up the circulatory system. Contents[hide] * 1 Human cardiovascular system * 1.1 Pulmonary circulation * 1.2 Systemic circulation * 1.3 Coronary circulation * 1.4 Heart * 1.5 Closed cardiovascular system * 1.6 Measurement techniques * 1.7 Health and disease * 1.8 Oxygen transportation * 1.9 Development * 1.9.1 Arterial development * 1.9.2 Venous development * 2 Nonhuman * 2.1 Other vertebrates * 2.2 Open circulatory system * 2.3 Absence of circulatory system * 3 History of discovery * 4 Gallery * 5 See also * 6 References * 7 External links | Human cardiovascular system

The main components of the human cardiovascular system are the heart, the veins, and the blood vessels.[3] It includes: the pulmonary circulation, a "loop" through the lungs where blood is oxygenated; and the systemic circulation, a "loop" through the rest of the body to provide oxygenated blood. An average adult contains five to six quarts (roughly 4.7 to 5.7 liters) of blood, which consists of plasma, red blood cells, white blood cells, and platelets. Also, the digestive system works with the circulatory system to provide the nutrients the system needs to keep the heart pumping. Pulmonary circulation

Main article: Pulmonary circulation
The Pulmonary circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which transports oxygen-depleted blood away from the heart, to the lungs, and returns oxygenated blood back to the heart. Oxygen deprived blood from the vena cava enters the right atrium of the heart and flows through the tricuspid valve into the right ventricle, from which it is pumped through the pulmonary semilunar valve into the pulmonary arteries which go to the lungs. Pulmonary veins return the now oxygen-rich blood to the heart, where it enters the left atrium before flowing through the mitral valve into the left ventricle. Then, oxygen-rich blood from the left ventricle is pumped out via the aorta, and on to the rest of the body. Systemic circulation

Main article: Systemic circulation
Systemic circulation is the portion of the cardiovascular system which transports oxygenated blood away from the heart, to the rest of the body, and returns oxygen-depleted blood back to the heart. Systemic circulation is, distance-wise, much longer than pulmonary circulation, transporting blood to every part of the body. Coronary circulation

Main article: Coronary circulation
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