In economics, the term circular flow of income refers to an economic model, which illustrates the circulation of income between producers and consumers. In the circular flow model, the terms producers and consumers are referred as “firms” and “households” respectively, where both provide each other with factors in order to facilitate the flow of income. Firstly, the households own the factors of production (inputs to production). Households rent labor to firms in exchange for wages. Households are also the ultimate owners of firms and obtain their profits. Households ultimately own the capital and land even if firms hold them. Firms instead provide households with goods and services in exchange for household’s expenditure (wage) and also “factors of production” from households. In this process, household sector provides various factors of production such as land, labor, capital and enterprise to producers who produce by goods and services by coordinating them. Producers or business sector in return makes payments in the form of rent, wages, interest and profits to the household sector. Again household sector spends this income to fulfill its wants in the form of consumption expenditure. Business sector supplies them goods and services produced and gets income in return of it. Thus expenditure of one sector becomes the income of the other and supply of goods and services by one section of the community becomes demand for the other. This process is unending and forms the circular flow of income, expenditure and production. The figure shows the circular flow between households and firms. The inner loop represents the flow of real resources. Households supply the services of factors of production to firms who use these factors to produce goods and services for households. This is known as the “Real Flow”. The outer loop instead represents the corresponding flow of payments. Firms pay factor incomes to households but receive revenue from household’s spending on goods...

...
CircularFlow Diagrams
Introduction
Money flows into and out of the economy. The circularflow diagram explains how money moves through the economic system involving households, businesses, the government, and foreign agents (Editorial Board, 2011). Circularflow diagrams are visual models that show firms who employ workers, the workers then spend on goods produced by firms, and the money is then used to compensate the worker and buy raw materials to make the goods and the circle continues.
Closed System
Closed system economies only count domestic exchanges. That is exchanges with no imports or exports from other countries. This type of economy is self sufficient. This type of economy is usually free of leakage but may have leaks. A close example of a closed system would be North Korea. North Korea is cutoff from the world’s economy. In this country most property belongs to the state, the government controls almost every part of the economy (sets production levels), the state directs all significant economic activity, is regulated heavily by the states control, financial sector is controlled by the state, and formal trade is minimal (mainly with China and South Korea) (North Korea, 2013). North Korea is a perfect example of a closed system. Things are worked out within the economy. The government has almost total control of the economy and everything that happens....

...changing. Because the direction is changing, there is a ∆v and ∆v = vf
- vi
, and
since velocity is changing, circular motion must also be accelerated motion.
vi
∆v vf
-vi
vf2
If the ∆t in-between initial velocity and final velocity is small, the direction of ∆v
is nearly radial (i.e. directed along the radius). As ∆t approaches 0, ∆v becomes
exactly radial, or centripetal.
∆v = vf
- vi
vi
vf
vf
∆v
-vi
Note that as ∆v becomes more centripetal,
it also becomes more perpendicular with vf
.
Also note that the acceleration of an object depends on its change in velocity ∆v;
i.e., if ∆v is centripetal, so is ‘a’.
From this, we can conclude the following for any object travelling in a circle at
constant speed:
The velocity of the object is tangent to its circular path.
The acceleration of the object is centripetal to its circular path. This type of
acceleration is called centripetal acceleration, or ac
.
The centripetal acceleration of the object is always perpendicular to its
velocity at any point along its circular path.
v
ac
ac
v 3
To calculate the magnitude of the tangential velocity (i.e., the speed) of an
object travelling in a circle:
• Start with d = vavt where ‘vav’ is a constant speed ‘v’
• In a circle, distance = circumference, so d = 2πr
• The time ‘t’ taken to travel once around the circular path is the
object’s period...

...
E105: UNIFORM CIRCULAR MOTION
NADONG, Renzo Norien D.
OBJECTIVE
The purpose of this experiment is to quantify the centripetal force on the body when one of the parameters is held constant and to verify the effects of the varying factors involved in circular motion. Mainly, horizontal circular type of motion is considered in this activity.
Circular motion is defined as the movement of an object along the circumference of the circle or the manner of rotating along a circular path. With uniform circular motion it is assured that the object traversing a given path maintains a constant speed at all times. Centripetal force is a force that tends to deflect an object moving in a straight path and compels it to move in a circular path.
MATERIALS AND METHODS
This experiment was divided into three parts in order to further study and observe the factors that affect the centripetal force of a body. The concept of this experiment is the same on all parts, which is getting the centripetal force given with three different conditions. Every part of the experiment was executed just the same. Mass hanger plus a desired mass of weights were hanged over the clamp on pulley to determine a constant centripetal force which will act as the actual value. But on the third part of this experiment, aside from the centripetal force, it is also asked to determine the mass of the rotating body....

...Exploration Guide: Uniform Circular Motion
Go to www.explorelearning.com and login. Please type or write your answers on a separate sheet of paper, not squished in the spaces on these pages. When relevant, data collected should be presented in a table.
Objective: To explore the acceleration and force of an object that travels a circular path at constant speed. Motion of this kind is called uniform circular motion.
Part 1: Centripetal Acceleration
1. The Gizmotm shows both a top view and a side view of a puck constrained by a string, traveling a circular path on an air table. Be sure the Gizmo has these settings: radius 8 m, mass 5 kg, and velocity 8 m/s. Then click Play and observe the motion of the puck.
a. The puck in the Gizmo is traveling at a constant speed, but it is NOT traveling at a constant velocity. Explain why.
b. Because the velocity of the puck is changing (because its direction is changing), the puck must be experiencing an acceleration. Click BAR CHART and choose Acceleration from the dropdown menu. Check Show numerical values. The leftmost bar shows the magnitude of the acceleration, or |a|. (The other two bars show the x- and y-components of the acceleration, ax and ay.) What is the value of |a|? Jot this value down, along with radius = 8 m, so that you can refer to it later.
c. Keeping velocity set to 8 m/s, set radius to 4 m. (To quickly set a slider to a value, typing the number...

...Circular Motion and Gravitation
Circular motion is everywhere, from atoms to galaxies, from flagella to Ferris wheels. Two terms are frequently used to describe such motion. In general, we say that an object rotates when the axis of rotation lies within the body, and that it revolves when the axis is outside it. Thus, the Earth rotates on its axis and revolves about the Sun.
When a body rotates on its axis, all the particles of the body revolve – that is, they move in circular paths about the body’s axis of rotation. For example, the particles that make up a compact disc all travel in circles about the hub of the CD player. In fact, as a “particle” on Earth, you are continually in circular motion about the Earth’s rotational axis.
Gravity plays a large role in determining the motions of the planets, since it supplies the force necessary to maintain their nearly circular orbits. Newton’s Law of Gravity describes this fundamental force and will analyze the planetary motion in terms of this and other related basic laws. The same considerations will help you understand the motions of Earth satellites, of which there is one natural one and many artificial ones.
Angular Measure
Motion is described as a time rate of change of position. Angular velocity involves a time rate of change of position, which is expressed by an angle. It is important to be able to relate the angular description...

...Title: Uniform Circular Motion
Objective: To investigate the relationship between FnetT² and radius
Proposed Hypothesis: FnetT² is directly proportional to the radius
Manipulated variable: Radius of the circular motion
Responding variable: The time taken for 20 rotations
Controlled variables: The mass of the rubber stopper, the mass of the weight hanger, the total weight of the slotted weight, the length of the PVC tube
Apparatus and Materials: rubber stopper, stopwatch, weight hanger, slotted weights,
crocodile clip, metre rule, thread, PVC tube
Diagram:
Procedure: 1. Weigh and record the masses of weight hanger and rubber stopper.
2. Tie the thread to the rubber stopper.
3. Pass the thread through the PVC tube.
4. Tie a node at the end of the thread and hang the weight hanger which is with
0.08g slotted weights on it.
5. Measure the 0.1m radius from the bottom of PVC tube and mark it.
6. Zheng Yie starts to rotate the thread with an acceleration until the bottom of
PVC tube is reached the mark.
7. Keep the speed of rotation constant so that the bottom of PVC tube is
always touched the mark.
8. After the speed is kept at constant speed, Adeline starts to studies the time
taken for 20 rotations by using a stopwatch.
9. Adeline is also responsible to record the time taken for 20 rotations.
10. Step 5 until step 9 are repeated by using different...

...Uniform Circular Motion – a constant motion along a circle; the unfirom motion of a body along a circle
Frequency (f) – the number of cycles or revolutions completed by the same object in a given time; may be expressed as per second, per minute, per hour, per year, etc.; standard unit is revolutions per second (rev/s)
Period (T) – the time it takes for an object to make one complete revolution; may be expressed in seconds, minutes, hours, years, etc.; standard unit is seconds per revolution (s/rev)
Note: Period and frequency are reciprocals: T = 1/f; f = 1/T.
Sample Problems:
1. Suppose the rear wheel makes 5 revolutions in 1 minute. Find the wheel’s period and frequency.
2. As a bucket of water is tied to a string and spun in a circle, it made 85 revolutions in a minute. Find its period and frequency.
3. * An object orbits in a circular motion 12.51 times in 10.41 seconds. What is the frequency of this motion?
Tangential Speed (v or vs) – average speed; rotational speed; speed of any particle in uniform circular motion; standard unit is meters per second (m/s); v = Cf = C/T = 2πrf = 2πr/T = rω
Sample Problems:
3. What is the rotational speed of a person standing at the earth’s equator given that its radius is 6.38*106 m and that it takes 365 days for the earth to complete a revolution?
4. A ball that is whirled about on a string makes 167 revolutions in 3 minutes. If the string is 1.5 meters long, find the...

...INVESTIGATING CIRCULAR MOTION 11/3/04
AIM
To examine some of the factors affecting the motion of an object undergoing uniform circular motion, and then to determine the quantitative relationship between the variables of force, velocity and radius.
APPARATUS
Rubber bung Metre rule 50 gram slot masses
Glass tube 50-gram mass carrier 50-gram slot masses Metre rule
Stopwatch Sticky tape Metre rule String
THEORY
As in Jacaranda HSC Science Physics 2 p.54
In this experiment when the rubber bung is moving in a circular motion and the string it is tied to moves neither up or down a constant radius is being maintained. For this to be true the centripetal force must equal the gravitational force hence
Mv"/r = mg from this
v"/r =mg/M and v" ∞ r therefore as v increases so does r and vice versa.
Where
m = Mass of mass carrier + masses (kg)
g = acceleration due to gravity 9.8 m/sec"
M = mass of object in motion (kg)
v = instantaneous velocity of mass (m/sec)
r = radius of circular motion (m)
METHOD
As in Jacaranda HSC Science Physics 2 p.54
However instead of measuring the time for 10 revolutions, the time for 20 revolutions was measured, this allowed more accurate results to be obtained. Furthermore the lengths given in the book were used as merely guidelines and not followed precisely also 50 and 100-gram masses were used.
RESULTS
Force (N) Radius(m) Period (20 Revolutions) (s) Orbital Velocity v m/s v"
g...