civil rights movement of 1960
Bruce Boynton was an african american student at Howard University Law School in Washington. He boarded a train for a trip to Montgomery Alabama. On a stop in Richmond. Boynton sat down in the white section of the dinning area and refused to move to the colored section. He was arrested for trespass and fined $10.
December 5, 1960
Boynton v. Virginia The supreme court said the interstate passengers were protected by the Interstate Commerce Act The case of boynton is tied to the freedom rides in what way DOCUMENT A
Boynton inspired CORE to adapt the Journey of Reconciliation for a new campaign of integration through the South. This was not the first time CORE had considered reviving the campaign. Billie Ames, a St. Louis woman who served as CORE's national group coordinator, had proposed a "Ride for Freedom" in 1954 to challenge segregated railway coaches and terminals. Family obligations, however, forced her to abandon the plan. [ In the wake of the Boynton ruling, however, CORE revived the idea. Arsenault explained that the revival came about because CORE members had written to ask why neither Morgan nor Boynton was being enforced. The new director of CORE, James Farmer, asked his staff how to answer the questions he was receiving: To his surprise, two staff members had already come up with a tentative plan to address the problem of nonenforcement. As Gordon Carey explained, during an unexpectedly long bus trip from South Carolina to New York in mid-January, he and Tom Gaither had discussed the feasibility of a second Journey of Reconciliation. Adapting the phrase "Ride for Freedom" originated by Billie Ames in the mid-1950s, they had come up with a catchy name for the project: "Freedom Ride." Thanks to a blizzard that forced them to spend a night on the floor of a Howard Johnson's restaurant along the New Jersey Turnpike, they had even gone so far as to map out a proposed route from Washington to New Orleans. Patterned after Gandhi's famous march to the sea-throughout the bus trip Carey had been reading Louis Fisher's biography of Gandhi-the second Journey, like the first, would be two weeks. But, taking advantage of the Southern movement's gathering momentum, it would also extend the effort to test compliance with the Constitution into the heart of the Deep South.
As the Freedom Movement continues into the future, the "Jail-No-Bail" tactic is tried again by many of the Freedom Riders. More than 300 of those arrested in Jackson MS, refuse to pay their fines and instead serve sentences in Mississippi's notorious Parchman Prison. But in later years, "Jail-No-Bail" is rarely used as a tactic-of-choice. Instead it is mostly used as a tactic-of-necessity when there is no money available to pay bail or fines. There are a number of reasons for "Jail-No-Bail" becoming the strategy of last resort:
In 1958 Bruce Boynton, a black student at Howard University Law School in Washington, D.C., boarded a Trailways bus in Washington bound for his home in Montgomery, Alabama. Leaving Washington at 8:00 PM, the bus stopped at about 10:40 PM at the Trailways Bus Terminal in Richmond, Virginia. Given a forty minute stopover, Boynton got off the bus to eat a bite at the Bus Terminal Restaurant located in the terminal building. The restaurant was racially segregated (keeping racial groups from mixing), divided into sections for whites and blacks. Boynton proceeded to sit down on a stool in the white section and ordered a sandwich and tea. After refusing to move to the colored section at the request of the waitress, the assistant manager appeared and ordered Boynton to move to the other section. He insisted he was an interstate bus passenger protected by federal desegregation laws (prohibiting the practice of separating races) and did not have to move. As a result, a local police officer arrested Boynton charging him with misdemeanor...
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