Cigarette Smoking

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Lung disease and cancer is threatening to kill our nation's hopes. This is the present concern of health experts because of the alarmingly high number of Filipino youths addicted to smoking and other tobacco products. (Buenavista, 2001). Smoking is very common worldwide but even more so in the Philippines," according to Dr. Dante Morales, former president of the Philippine Heart Association (PHA) and Philippine College of Physicians (PCP). More importantly, it is the most common cause of death from heart and brain attack and blood vessel diseases in the country. According to the Philippine Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) of the DOH, that among kids aged 13 - 18 years old, 57% of the boys and 27% from the girls are already smoking. Four out of ten kids overall (43%) have already tried cigarette smoking. (Buenavista, 2001). According to the WHO, the Philippines ranks number one in terms of youth smokers compared to the data from other countries in the Western Pacific and Southeast Asian region.

For this reasons, the researchers, focus the study about the perceptions of teenagers ages 15 – 18 years old in smoking. This will also enable them to determine what the influences are surrounding the teenagers in order to smoke. The researchers formulated a questionnaire for gathering data. The questionnaire is composed of seven questions; include the frequency of smoking, the influential factors, family and friends consent, different perceptions, and quitting. More importantly, the gender and the age are asked. Only aged 15-18 year old nursing students are chosen as a sample population of the study. REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

This chapter discusses both conceptual and research literatures. The literatures related to this study were gathered from books, journals, other periodicals, and unpublished materials. The information gathered from these sources provided the researcher with the necessary background knowledge which was significant to the study.

Foreign Studies
Recent research indicates related factors that influence smoking habits that: The motivation for any adolescent behavior is complex. The reason they smoke are no less so but may include: peer pressure, imitation of their parents, boredom, cigarette advertising, the need to experiment, and self-image. All these factors affect an adolescent’s decision to begin smoking. They continue to smoke because cigarettes are highly addictive. A recent study by Dr. Alan Moran in Drogheda looked at the issues of peer/parent/sibling pressure on smoking and the reasons teenagers stop smoking. He surveyed pupils from three male secondary schools in the North and East and found that if a sibling smoked, the adolescent was 3.5 times more likely to smoke. If a close friend smoked, their risk of smoking is 11.5 times more. Of the boys surveyed, 79% reported enjoying smoking, 80% reported having tried to stop smoking and 70% wanted to stop. The reasons why they wanted to stop were: ill-health-22%, cough – 9%, the fact that it was illegal under the age of 17 years -2.6%, and medical advice – 1.2%. The reasons they stated for smoking were: stress -34%, to feel cool – 15%, to feel confident – 11%, enjoyment – 10, addiction -9%, and because friends smoked – 3.3%.

The interesting area in this study is to note that only 9% smoked because they were addicted but 34% because the reason of being “stressed”. In spite of legislation banning the sales of cigarettes to under 16 years old, all the adolescent smokers stated they were able to buy cigarettes when asked where they got them from. (Moran, Alan – 1995)

From a book entitled “Global Aggression: The Case for World Standards and Bold US Action Philip Morris and RJR Nabisco” by Derek Yach stated that: being adult is very important to teenagers. Teenagers crave to be adults, to take their place in society and to be a full adult member of the tribe. The real reason teenagers...
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